Bible Study for Pr-Servants G1: The Synoptic Gospels According to Sts. Matthew, Mark, Luke December 11, 2010
The New Testament Acts The Epistles Revelation The Gospels Letters Visions The Story of Jesus Early Church Epistles of Paul Catholic Epistles Apocalyptic Literature History Past Present Future
Overview Of The Gospels • “Gospel” means “Good News” from the Greek word ευαγγέλιον (evangelion) (ευ=“good”; αγγέλιον=“news” or “message”). • From that we get the words “evangelical” (someone focused on the good news) and “evangelist” (proclaimer of the good news). The authors of the four Gospel writings are also called the Evangelists. • Dates: • Mark 55-65 A.D. • Matthew 58-68 A.D. • Luke 60-85 A.D. • John 85 A.D. • The Gospel (not Gospels)according to Sts. Matthew, Mark and Luke are called the Synoptic Gospels because they share a common (“syn”) viewpoint (“optic”). • They are similar to each other. The Gospel according to St. John is quite different.
MARK Introduction Public Ministry Ch 3 to 5 You are the Christ! 8:29 Private Ministry Ch 9-10 Death, Burial, and Resurrection (11-16) • Baptism LUKE Introduction (1-4) Miracles (4-9) Journey to Jerusalem (9-18) Death, Burial, and Resurrection (19-24) • Birth • 12 years old Five Sermons, “When Jesus finished these words” (7:28; 11:1; 13:53; 19:1; 26:1) Death, Burial, and Resurrection (26-28) • Birth • Baptism • Trial MATTHEW Introduction (1-4)
The Gospel According to St. Matthew Jesus the King • His genealogy (by flesh) and birth (Ch. 1 & 2) • His messenger; John the Baptist (Ch. 3) • His trial (by Satan) then appearance to the Jews (Ch. 4) • His laws; the sermon (1) on the mountain (Ch. 5 to 7) • His service (Ch. 8 to 11) • His struggle with the Jews to establish the Kingdom of Heaven (Ch. 9 to 20) => 3 sermons • His triumphant entry to Jerusalem (Ch. 21 to 25) => 1 sermon (signs of the times, parables, second coming) • His death and resurrection (Ch. 26 to 28)
The Gospel According to St. Matthew The 5 sermons: • Sermon of the Mount (Ch. 5-7) • Instructions to the twelve disciples (Ch. 10) • Parables on the Kingdom of Heaven (Ch. 13) • Sower • Wheat and tares • Mustard seed • Leaven • Hidden treasure • Pearl of great price • Dragnet • Instructions to the Church (Ch. 18) • emphasize ecclesiastical responsibility and humility • Seven woes on the scribes and Pharisees (Ch. 23)
The Gospel According to St. Mark Jesus the Servant • Preparations for His coming and ministry (Ch. 1 and 2) • His ministry of service In teaching and working miracles of mercy (Ch. 1 to 10) • Jesus early Galilean ministry (Ch. 1 to 3) • Jesus later Galilean ministry of teaching and mercy (Ch. 3 to 6) • His journeys into the regions outside of Galilee (Ch. 6 to 8) • His closing ministry of teaching and mercy in Galilee (Ch. 8 to 9) • His ministry of teaching and mercy starts in Jerusalem (Ch. 10) • His suffering ,death and resurrection (Ch. 11 to 16) • His ministry in Jerusalem; looks for fruits, disarms His opponents, and future things to take place (Ch. 11 to 13) • His suffering and death at the hands of the Jews, Pilate and Gentiles Roman soldiers (Ch. 14 to 15) • His resurrection (Ch. 16)
The Gospel According to St. Mark Distinct Characteristics • Only 16 chapters (compared to the other 3 Gospel writings) • Fast-paced writing sandwiching events and teachings e.g. the Fig Tree (11:12-24) • Simple language full of imagination and details of persons places and nature e.g. • Demon-possessed man healing (5:1-20) • Beasts in the mountain of trial (1:13) • Explanation to the Jewish terms that can be understood by the Roman audience • The explanation of the Jewish traditions (7: 2, 3, 4, etc.) • “And now when evening had come, because it was the Preparation Day, that is, the day before the Sabbath” (15:42)
The Gospel According to St. Luke Jesus the Son of Man • His birth, baptism and trial (Ch. 1 to 4) • His ministry in Galilee to seek and save the lost (Ch. 4 to 9) • Jesus early Galilean ministry (Ch. 4 to 6) • Jesus later Galilean ministry (Ch. 6 to 9) • His closing ministry in Galilee (Ch. 9) • His ministry in Judea (9 to 13) and in His way to Jerusalem (Ch. 13 to 18) to seek and save the lost • His suffering ,death, resurrection and ascension (Ch. 19 to 24) • His triumphant entry into Jerusalem and teaches in the temple (Ch. 19 to 21) • His suffering and death at the hands of the Jews and Gentiles Romans (Ch. 22 to 23) • His resurrection and ascension (Ch. 24)
The Gospel According to St. Luke Jesus the Son of Man: • Miracles and Parables • 20 miracles; 6 of which are unique e.g. widow of Naim's son, man with dropsy, ten lepers, • Parables that are unique to Luke are the “Good Samaritan”, “Corrupt Steward” and “Prodigal Son” • Role of Woman • Among Jesus' followers are women Mary Magdalene, Martha and her sister Mary • Contains the Annunciation of the birth of Jesus to St. Mary His mother • The Gospel of Luke features more female characters, features a female prophet (Anna; Luke 2:36) and details the experience of pregnancy (1:41-42) • Prominent discussion is given to the lives of Elizabeth, the mother of John the Baptist and of St. Mary
Some of the main common events in the Gospel writings • John the Baptist • Baptism then the Trial of Jesus by Satan • Appointments of the Disciples and Apostles • The Great Confession • Transfiguration • Triumphant Entry into Jerusalem • The Lord’s Supper • Christ’s Crucifixion, Death and Resurrection
John the Baptist • All four Gospel writings emphasize the ministry of John the Baptist. • John is a fulfillment of Old Testament prophecy (Isaiah 40:3; Malachi 3:1). • His message. • Calling for repentance • Pointing to Messiah
Baptism of Jesus • Significance of Baptism. • Identification. • Proclamation from the Father: This is my beloved Son (Matthew 3:17). • Testimony of the Holy Spirit. • Significance of the Dove. • Significance of the Spirit.
Baptism of Jesus Temptation of Jesus Sonship stated by the Father Sonship challenged by Satan Second Adam is taken through a second probationary testing
Appointment of the Apostles • Apostle versus Disciple. • They are to be Fishers of Men. • They represent the New Israel of the New Covenant. • Twelve. • Seated on Twelve Thrones (Mt 19:28; Rev 21:14). • Foundation stones of the Church (Eph. 2:20).
The Great Confession You are the Christ! • Made by Peter • John records a similar confession by Peter (John 6:68-69). • Peter is speaking as the spokesmen of the Apostles. • Jesus is THE One from God. • Jesus reveals the Cross.
Transfiguration What is its significance? • Encourage those who will see the cross. • Graphic testimony of the Law and the Prophets. • Centrality of the Cross (Luke’s reference to “His exodus”). • Promise of the Future. • Testimony of the Father.
The King Comes to Jerusalem • Triumphal Entry • Cleansing of the Temple • A Question of Authority
Lord’s Supper • Setting of the Passover • “This is My Body” • “This is My Blood • The New Covenant • Promise of the Second Coming
Crucifixion and Death • The Trials: With what was Jesus charged? • The real indictment • The Roman charge • The Significance of the Cross • “My God, My God, Why have You forsaken Me?”
The Resurrection • Promised in the Old Testament (Ps 16:8-11) • Unexpected by the Disciples • The Ultimate Sign of Christ’s Identity
Matthew 28:18-20 And Jesus came up and spoke to them, saying, “All authority has been given to Me in heaven and on earth. 19 Go therefore and make disciples of all the nations, baptizing them in the name of the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit, 20 teaching them to observe all that I commanded you; and lo, I am with you always, even to the end of the age.”