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Lumpers, Splitters, and Core Self-Evaluations

Lumpers, Splitters, and Core Self-Evaluations

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Lumpers, Splitters, and Core Self-Evaluations

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  1. Lumpers, Splitters, and Core Self-Evaluations Timothy A. Judge University of Florida Primary Collaborators Ed Locke, University of Maryland Amir Erez, University of Florida Joyce Bono, University of Minnesota Carl Thoresen, Tulane University

  2. Broad vs. Specific Traits • Bandwidth-fidelity paradox: earliest stages of scientific psychology • elements of sensations (Titchener, 1910) • structure of intelligence (Spearman, 1927) • nature of attitudes (Fishbein & Ajzen, 1974) • Parsimony is a goal of psychology • Ceteris paribus, the simplest explanation, or fewest number of constructs, is preferred • If a broad factor explains overlap in measures, unexplained (unique) non-error variance must show incremental validity (Humphreys, 1962)

  3. “The Big Three” • Self-esteem, locus of control, and neuroticism are the most widely studied individual traits in personality psychology • Search of PsycINFO database • Self-esteem: 20,203 articles • Locus of control: 13,428 articles • Neuroticism/emotional stability: 20,026 articles Extraversion/introversion: 6,754 articles Need for achievement/achievement mot.: 9,938 articles • The 3 traits have been the subject of more than 50,000 studies!

  4. Core Traits • Nearly always studied in isolation • In personality research… • In the few cases where 2 are included, interrelationship are not considered • When interrelationship is considered, results are often bewildering… • neuroticismlocus of control (Wambach & Panackal, 1979) • locus of a controlneuroticism(Morelli et al., 1979) • In I-O/OB research… • Nearly all studies including more than one core trait treat them as wholly independent

  5. Core Self-Evaluations • Judge, Locke, & Durham (1997) proposed a broad construct, core self-evaluations(CSE), that reflects a positive self-concept • CSE is a latent trait indicated by • High self-esteem • High self-efficacy (generalized) • Internal locus of control • Low neuroticism (high emotional stability)

  6. Are the Traits Related? Numbers in red are meta-analyzed correlations. Numbers in black are number of studies. Numbers in green are combined N. Source: Judge, Erez, Bono, & Thoresen (Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 2002)

  7. Second-Order Factor Analysis Results Self- Esteem .94 (.92) Locus of Control .60 (.73) CORE SELF EVALUATIONS Generalized Self-Efficacy .87 (.83) Sample 1 (Sample 2) Note: All loadings are significant at the .01 level Neuroticism -.77 (-.79)

  8. Discriminant Validity?Results Across Four Studies E=Extraversion; O=Openness; A=Agreeableness; C=Conscientiousness; JS=Job satisfaction; LS=Life satisfaction; S=Stress; LOC=Locus of control; ES=Emotional stability; SE=Self-esteem; GSE=generalized self-efficacy Source: Judge, Erez, Bono, & Thoresen (Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 2002)

  9. Validity of Core Traits • Job satisfaction • Display average correlation of .32 with job satisfaction • More likely to perceive (Judge, Locke, Durham, & Kluger, JAP, 1997), and attain (Judge, Bono, & Locke, JAP, 2000), intrinsically satisfying jobs • Job performance • Display average correlation of .23 with performance (same as conscientiousness) • More likely to be motivated in laboratory and field studies, through goal setting behavior (Erez & Judge, JAP, 2001)

  10. Core Traits - PerformanceMeta Analysis Results End points indicate limits of 80% CV Notes: SE=self-esteem; GSF=generalized self-efficacy; LOC=locus of control; ES=emotional stability Source: Judge & Bono (JAP, 2001)

  11. Core Traits - SatisfactionMeta Analysis Results End points indicate limits of 80% CV Notes: SE=self-esteem; GSF=generalized self-efficacy; LOC=locus of control; ES=emotional stability Source: Judge & Bono (JAP, 2001)

  12. Incremental Validity? • Controlling for common factor individual core traits almost never contribute to predicting any outcome • Little specific-factor variance • If a broad factor explains overlap in measures, the unexplained non-error variance that is unique to the measures must be examined for its usefulness (Lubinski & Dawis, 1992) • This specific factor variance, beyond the core trait, is rarely (though sometimes) useful

  13. What Is This Broad Factor? • CSE more related to neuroticism than to conscientiousness, extraversion • If CSE=emotional stability • Measure of emotional stability (neuroticism) need to be revisited • Derived from psychopathology • Assess stress/anxiety more than evaluation of one’s self worth or competence • NEO-FFI (key words in each of 12 items) • 6 items: worry, stress, tense, anxious, anger, shame • 6 items: inferior, lonely/blue, worthless, discouraged, sad/depressed, helpless

  14. Relationships with Big Five Average relationships across 4 studies Source: Judge, Erez, Bono, & Thoresen (Journal of Personality & Social Psychology, 2002)

  15. Core Self-Evaluations Scale (CSES) • I am confident I get the success I deserve in life. • Sometimes I feel depressed. (r) • When I try, I generally succeed. • Sometimes when I fail I feel worthless. (r) • I complete tasks successfully. • Sometimes, I do not feel in control of my work. (r) • Overall, I am satisfied with myself. • I am filled with doubts about my competence. (r) • I determine what will happen in my life. • I do not feel in control of my success in my career. (r) • I am capable of coping with most of my problems. • There are times when things look pretty bleak and hopeless to me. (r) r=reverse scored Source: Judge, Erez, Bono, & Thoresen (PPsych, in press)

  16. Incremental Validity Source: Judge, Erez, Bono, & Thoresen (PPsych, in press)

  17. Conclusions • 4 core traits widely studied, yet considered as distinct concepts • Traits can be argued to be indicators of higher-order concept • Traits, and higher-order concept, is relevant to satisfaction, performance, and other criteria • Individual core traits rarely add beyond core factor or direct measure