AVIA 222 Advanced Flight Operations II
AVIA 222 • Welcome back!
GET READY for the IATRA • Let’s take a look at the course outline…
Advanced Air Law • The question on everyone mind is “could there possibly be more air law to learn…the answer is YES…there is an infinite amount of AIM/CARs to learn • Let’s look at today’s subjects
AVIA 222 Topics: Day 1 • Radar services • Radar Vectoring • IFR Separation • Wake Turbulence Separation • Pressure Alt. Errors • Unserviceable Equipment • Minimum Equipment list
SCATANA • Life rafts • Emergency Flight Interceptions • CMNPS • NAR • NAT/OTS http://www.avsim.com/hangar/flight/atccanada/information/Nat1.html
Radar Services • RADAR = Radio Direction and Ranging • Primary Surveillance Radar (PSR) • Uses radio signals to measure range and azimuth to a/c or weather and terrain etc. • Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) • Uses transponder signals to positively identify targets, information transfer (mode C or S), longer range but no weather/terrain information. • Precision Approach Radar • Short range, highly accurate radar (mostly military, some larger civilian airports) • Ref: AIM COM 3.14
The RDP system can be interfaced with any primary and secondary radars using a dedicated radar interface board to adapt the incoming radar data formats to a common internal protocol.
Radar Con’t. • ATC uses radar to increase airspace utilization by reducing the separation intervals between aircraft. • In addition radar services provide traffic information, navigation assistance, weather, aircraft data etc. • Radar Vectoring can allow lower sector altitudes as ATC provides minimum terrain clearance, as well as more direct operations i.e.. Vectoring to a glideslope instead of following a published arc.
IFR Separation • At or below FL290, • 1000’ of vertical separation is provided to IFR a/c • Above FL290, • 2000’ of vertical separation is provided • Flight levels will not be approved if current altimeter settings could conflict a/c below FL180
IFR Lateral Separation • ATC provides airspace protection based on the approved track, holding procedure, and approach procedure taking into account the accuracy of the navigational equipment being used. • When off airways and beyond navigational signal coverage areas, 45nm on either side of the intended track is protected. • Ref. AIM RAC 6.4
Wake Turbulence Separation • Wake turbulence is most commonly encountered during take off or landing phases behind heavy aircraft. • Wake turbulence can also be encountered at any phase of flight when closely behind and below heavy aircraft, such as in the circuit at a busy airport, or during circling procedures.
A/C classification for wake turbulence is based on MCTOW: • Group 1 (heavy), a/c certified for take off at or above 300,000 lbs. • Group 2 (medium), a/c between 15,500 and 300,000 • Group 3 (light), a/c under 15,500lbs.
WT Separation, Radar Departures and Vectoring behind with less than 1000’ vertical separation • Heavy behind a Heavy = 4 miles • Medium behind a Heavy = 5 miles • Light behind a Heavy = 6 miles • Light behind a Medium = 4 miles
Non-Radar Departures • ATC will apply a TWO minute hold for any aircraft following a Heavy take off if using the same runway departure point, or if within 2,500’ of a parallel runway • ATC will apply a THREE minute hold behind a heavy if departure is from a mid point of the runway, or a longer take off roll can be expected.
Pilot Waivers • The intention of the hold clearance for wake turbulence is to make the pilot aware of the situation, the PIC may waive the hold if it is the only restricting factor to takeoff
Turbulence Con’t. • Some turbulence facts: • Greatest behind slow, heavy a/c in the clean config • Vortexes flow down and away • Last approximately two minutes before dissipating • Can be affected by wind • Helicopters can also produce significant turbulence • Ref: AIM RAC 4.1.1, AIR 2.9
Pressure Altitude Errors • Extreme Cold will have a major effect on altimeters: • Apply cold temperature corrections to all phases of IFR approach and departure procedures • If assigned an altitude while being radar vectored, do NOT apply corrections, fly the indicated.
Unserviceable/Removed Equipment • The PIC is responsible for determining, if there is unserviceable or removed equipment, whether it affects flight safety and the flight should not be allowed. • If the A/C has a minimum equipment list, then it must be specified as allowable within limitations for any intended flight. • If the a/c does not have a MEL, then the flight may only proceed if the equipment standards required adhere to • The standards of airworthiness still apply for the type of flight (VFR/IFR) • The Aircraft manufactures requirements • The AOC • Any Airworthiness Directives (AD’s), or CARs regulations.
HOME WORK!! • Review the MEL and Unserviceable and Removed equipment standards in CAR’s 605.06 – 605.10 • Also, Review Technical Records and Journey log requirements CARs 605.92-605.97…You will be tested on this subject.
ESCAT • ESCAT is a set of rules that assigns priorities to aircraft during times of war…occasionally a ESCAT TEST will be broadcast…if you hear one when you are flying respond with an acknowledgment and continue your flight as normal.
Transport Safety Board • What is an Aviation Occurrence? • What is a Reportable Aviation Accident? • What is a Reportable Aviation Incident?
Aviation Occurrence AIM 3.2 • Any accident or incident associated with the operation of an aircraft
Mandatory Reportable IncidentsAIM 3.3.2 • In the case of an incident involving an aircraft having a maximum certificated take-off weight greater than 2 250 kg, or of an aircraft being operated under an air operator certificate issued under Part VII of the Canadian Aviation Regulations:
Cont. (1) an engine fails or is shut down as a precautionary measure, (2) a power train transmission gearboxmalfunctionoccurs, (3) smoke is detected or a fire occurs on board, (4) difficulties in controlling the aircraft are encountered owing to any aircraft system malfunction, weather phenomena, wake turbulence, uncontrolled vibrations or operations outside the flight envelope, (5) the aircraft fails to remain within the intended landing or take-off area, lands with all or part of the landing gear retracted or drags a wing tip, an engine pod or any other part of the aircraft, (6) a crew member whose duties are directly related to the safe operation of the aircraft is unable to perform their duties as a result of a physical incapacitation which poses a threat to the safety of persons, property or the environment,
Cont. (7) depressurization of the aircraft occurs that requires an emergency descent, (8) a fuel shortage occurs that requires a diversion or requires approach and landing priority at the destination of the aircraft, (9) the aircraft is refuelled with the incorrect type of fuel or contaminated fuel, (10) a collision, a risk of collision or a loss of separation occurs, (11) a crew member declares an emergency or indicates an emergency that requires priority handling by air traffic services or the standing by of emergency response services, (12) a slung load is released unintentionally or as a precautionary or emergency measure from the aircraft, or (13) any dangerous goods are released in or from the aircraft.
Incidents Oooops: During Sabadell Air Show a landing Chinook helicopter created so much draft, that this light airplane was lifted up and fell onto a standing airport vehicle. These people tried to get the airplane back to the ground, with Chinook crew (with helmets) helping!
Accidents AIM 3.3.1 (1) A person is killed or sustains a serious injury as a result of: • being on board the aircraft, • coming into direct contact with any part of the aircraft, including parts that have become detached from the aircraft, or • being directly exposed to jet blast, rotor down wash or propeller wash, (2) the aircraft sustains structural failure or damage that adversely affects the aircraft’s structural strength, performance or flight characteristics and would normally require major repair or replacement of any affected component, except for: • (a) engine failure or damage, when the damage is limited to the engine, its cowlings or accessories, or • (b) damage limited to propellers, wing tips, antennae, tires, brakes, fairings or small dents or puncture holes in the aircraft’s skin, or (3) the aircraft is missing or inaccessible.
Accident! C-FBKKApparently they came across a soft spot in the ramp and tried to power out of it with the nose gear turned.
Life Rafts are required by… • Single engine a/c operating further than 100nm, or 30 min at cruise, from a suitable safe landing area. • Multi engine a/c operation further than 200nm, or 60 minutes, from a suitable safe landing area.
Interception Rules • If you look out the window and see one of these….
This would mean: • You have been bad and have now been intercepted by the Canadian Armed Forces and should • Squawk 7700 • Advise ATC that you have been intercepted • Switch your radio to 121.5 and try to establish communications • Pull out the CFS and review the intercept signals.
CMNPS • Canadian Minimum Navigation Performance Specifications (Airspace): • CMNPS is a specified portion of Canadian Domestic Airspace in the Artic and Northern Control Area between FL330-410 • Certification depends on navigational performance and crew training that enables the a/c to • Deviate less than 6.3nm off the assigned track • Tolerances of less than 1 hour off track by more than 30 nm every 2000 flight hours • Tolerances of less than 1 hour off track by more than 50-70 nm every 8000 flight hours • The CMNPS transition area allows non certified a/c to mix with certified a/c from FL280-FL330