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Section 2.1 The Structure of the Atom

Section 2.1 The Structure of the Atom

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Section 2.1 The Structure of the Atom

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  1. Section 2.1 The Structure of the Atom

  2. In this section… • The components of an atom • Atomic symbols • Isotopes and atomic weight The Structure of the Atom

  3. Components of an Atom: The Structure of the Atom

  4. Components of an Atom: The Structure of the Atom

  5. The Structure of the Atom

  6. Atomic number and mass number: The Structure of the Atom

  7. Atomic symbols: The Structure of the Atom

  8. Atomic symbols: The Structure of the Atom

  9. Isotopes: atoms with the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons The Structure of the Atom

  10. Isotopes and average atomic weight: The average atomic weight of an element depends on the mass of the atoms but also on the relative abundance of each isotope. The Structure of the Atom

  11. Average atomic weights are shown on periodic table: The Structure of the Atom

  12. Chiuaua: 4 lbs. Mastif: 120 lbs. What is the average weight of a collection of these dogs?

  13. Isotopes and average atomic weight: Average dog mass: 96 % Chiuauas @ 4 lbs. 4 % Mastifs @ 120 lbs. The Structure of the Atom

  14. Elements with a single isotope have atomic weight = mass of that isotope Can make rough estimate of relative abundance from average atomic weight. The Structure of the Atom

  15. Isotope trends among the elements:

  16. Isotopes and average atomic weight: how do we know all this? The Structure of the Atom Mass spectrometry

  17. Section 2.2 The Periodic Table

  18. In this section… • Structure of the periodic table • Classifications of elements • Element structures (atomic arrangements) The Periodic Table

  19. Periodic table structure: groups (columns)

  20. Periodic table structure: periods (rows)

  21. Periodic table structure: main group elements

  22. Periodic table structure: transition metals

  23. Periodic table structure: lanthanides and actinides

  24. Periodic table structure: lanthanides and actinides

  25. Periodic table structure: lanthanides and actinides

  26. Periodic table structure: named groups

  27. Classification of elements:

  28. Periodic trends: density

  29. Periodic trends: melting point

  30. Element structures

  31. Element structures: extended structures

  32. Element structures: allotropes (same element, different structures)

  33. Section 2.3 Covalent Compounds

  34. In this section… • The nature of covalent compounds • Ways of representing covalent compounds • Naming covalent compounds Covalent Compounds

  35. Covalent compounds are composed of atoms of different elements that are bonded together by sharing electrons. Two types: -- molecular compounds -- network covalent compounds Covalent Compounds

  36. Molecular compounds: composed of individual molecules containing the same number of atoms Covalent Compounds

  37. Molecular compounds: composed of individual molecules containing the same number of atoms Covalent Compounds

  38. Molecular compounds: carbondioxide Molecular Compounds

  39. Network covalent compounds: A large number of atoms of different elements bonded by shared electrons. Each sample has molecules with different numbers of atoms. Covalent Compounds

  40. Network covalent compounds: silicondioxide Covalent Compounds

  41. Representing compounds: Molecular formula: depicts number of atoms of each element Empirical formula: shows simplest integer ratio of atoms of each element Structural formula: shows atomic linkages Models: show 3-dimensional shape of molecule Covalent Compounds

  42. Molecular formula: depicts number of atoms of each element Covalent Compounds

  43. Empirical formula: shows simplest integer ratio of atoms of each element Covalent Compounds molecular formula: empirical formula:

  44. Molecular and Empirical formulas are often the same. Covalent Compounds

  45. Structural formula: shows connections between atoms Covalent Compounds

  46. Condensed structural formula: mainly for organics. Covalent Compounds CH3CH2CH2CH2OH