THE MOON SATELLITE BY J.JAYASREE M.TECH-COS
Moon: • The Moon is the Earth's only natural satellite, circling in a slightly elliptical orbit at 2,300 miles per hour (3,683 km/hr). • It doesn't revolve around the Sun, because of its size and composition, planetary scientists call the Moon a "terrestrial planet"
Why moon is natural satellite: • The moon makes complete orbit around earth with fixed star once every 27.3 days. • The pull of gravity keeps the Moon, Earth’s natural satellite, in orbit around Earth. • The half of the Moon’s surface that constantly faces Earth.
Details of moon: • Average distance from Earth 380,000 km • Orbits in 27.3 Earth days • Rotates in 27.3 Earth days • Distance to earth: 384,400 km • Orbital period : 27 days • Gravity : 1.622 m/s² • Age : 4.527 billion years • Circumference : 10,917 km • Orbits :Earth
Where does the Moon come from? • Accretion theory - The Moon was created at the same time and from the same material as the Earth or perhaps simply broke off as the Earth was created. • Impact theory(Giant collision)- The Moon formed during an impact between the Earth and another small planet, about the size of Mars. The debris from this collision collected in an orbit around Earth to form the Moon. • Capture theory - The Moon was a wandering body that formed elsewhere in the solar system, captured by Earth's gravity as it passed close by.
Surface of moon: • The half of the Moon’s surface that constantly faces Earth is called the near side. • The half that faces away from Earth is called the far side • Much of the near side of the Moon is covered with these dark-coloured features. • In contrast, the far side is mostly light-coloured with just a few of the darker features.
Moon surface: • The side of the Moon that constantly faces Earth has large, dark areas called maria. • Light –coloured areas have higher with great attitude it is known as highlands.
Maria: • A dark area on the Moon is still called a lunar maria. • Early astronomers thought that the dark areas might be bodies of water, so they used the Latin word for “sea.” • All of the features that can be seen on the Moon are different types of solid or broken rock.
Lunar highlands: • The light-coloured areas of the Moon are higher at greater altitudes than the maria, so they are called the lunar highlands. • The highlands have many round features, called impact craters. • some of the largest craters filled with molten rock, or lava, that came from beneath the Moon’s surface.
Moon phases: • The 18.6-year nodes cycle also has an influence: when the ascending node of the lunar orbit is in the vernal equinox , the lunar declination can go as far as 28° each month. • This means the Moon can go overhead at latitudes up to 28° from the equator, instead of only 18°.
MOON ROCKS: • The dark-coloured rock that formed from lava is called basalt (buh-SAWLT) • Impacts from space objects leave craters, and they also break the surface material into smaller pieces. This breaking of material is called weathering highland rock basalt
MOON LAYERS: • The Moon has three layers— • A crust, • A mantle , and • Acore • The crust is a thick mantle that makes up most of the Moon’s volume. • The mantle is made of dense types of rock that include the elements iron and magnesium.
Layers of moon: • In the middle of the Moon is a small core, approximately 700 kilometers (400 mi) across. Although dense, it makes up only a tiny fraction of the Moon’s mass. crust mantle core
First moon satellite by ISRO: • Chandrayaan-1 was India's first moon satellite. It was launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation in 22 October 2008, and operated until August 2009. • The mission included a lunar orbiter and an impactor. India launched the spacecraft using a PSLV-XL rocket.
First moon satellite by ISRO: • The 2008 Chandrayaan-1 spacecraft has since confirmed the existence of surface water ice, using the on-board Moon Mineralogy Mapper. • The spectrometer observed absorption lines common to hydroxyl in reflected sunlight, providing evidence of large quantities of water ice, on the lunar surface.
First satellite to moon: • Luna 10 (E-6S series) was a 1966 Soviet Luna program, robotic spacecraft mission, also called Lunik 10. • It was the first artificial satellite of the Moon.
First man in moon: • Apollo 11 was the name of the first manned lunar landing mission. • Neil Alden Armstrong (August 5, 1930 – August 25, 2012) was an American astronaut and the first person to walk on the Moon .
Other satellite moon: • 0 Moons for Mercury • 0 Moons for Venus • 1 Moon for Earth • 2 Moons for Mars • 67 Moons for Jupiter • 62 Moons for Saturn • 27 Moons for Uranus • 14 Moons for Neptune • 5 Moons for Dwarf Pluto • 1 Moon for Dwarf Orcus