Questions • The Crow Indians had to buy back their land back from what Act? • What administration is in charge of management of 55.7 million acres of land held in trust by the United States for American Indians? • What is the percentage of native American high school graduates that go on to high education? • When was Progressive Education first applied? • What dance was used to get revenge on a rival tribe? • Give some examples of what the Guardian Spirit could take form in during a vision quest? • Was Polygamy allowed in Crow Marriages between men and women? • Young girls in the Crow community would wear young beads on their dresses to enhance their beauty. What other purposes did the beads serve? • Young boys were trained to look after their own needs at a young age. Was the training the boys endured for long periods of time? • What two major events affected the Crow Indians way of life? • What is the Crow word for Shinny? • What were the main items wagered in crow boys games?
Crow Indian Nation 1930-1960
Major Events in the 20th Century • May 24, 1906 • Proclamations. 34 Stat., Part 3, 3200. • An agreement between the Indians of the Crow Indian Reservation in Montana, on the one part, and Benjamin F. Barge, James H. McNeely, and Charles G. Hoyt, Commissioners on behalf of the United States, on the other part, amended and ratified by Act of Congress approved April twenty-seven, nineteen hundred and four (33 Stat., 352), said Indians ceded, granted, and relinquished to the United States all their right, title, and interest in and to the unallotted lands. • Crow Indian tribe had to buy back the land which was taken from them during the 19th century Homestead Act. • Persons who make homestead entry for any of the ceded lands will be required to pay four dollars per acre, payment in all cases to be made as follows: One dollar per acre at the time of entry, and the remainder to be paid in four equal, annual installments, the first installment to be paid at the end of the second year. Upon all entries the usual fee and commissions shall be paid.
Major Events Contd. • Bureau Of Indian Affairs (BIA) • Since its inception on March 11, 1824, the Bureau of Indian Affairs has been a witness to and the principle player in the history of federal-tribal relations. Once an instrument of federal policies to subjugate and assimilate American Indian tribes and their peoples, the BIA has changed, and has the policies of the past 177 years. • The Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) responsibility is the administration and management of 55.7 million acres of land held in trust by the United States for American Indians, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives. There are 562 federal recognized tribal governments in the United States. Developing forestlands, leasing assets on these lands, directing agricultural programs, protecting water and land rights, developing and maintaining infrastructure and economic development are all part of the agency's responsibility. • Indian Reorganization Act: An Act to conserve and develop Indian lands and resources; to extend to Indians the right to form business and other organizations; to establish a credit system for Indians; to grant certain rights of home rule to Indians; to provide for vocational education for Indians; and for other purposes. July 16th 1934.
Native American Children Education 1930 - 1960
Introduction • Through out the nation, Native American kids travel each day for hours at a time to get to school • These schools like the kids, lack essential school materials to even attempt a proper education • Today, only 17% of Native American high school graduates will go on to collage compared to the 62% of the national average
1930’s • Collier's "Indian New Deal" had a separate Indian Civilian Conservation Corps and an Indian Emergency Conservation Work program. Opportunities were made for vocational training as well as jobs and job training. • The Depression had finally benefited Indian people! Collier and his new director of the Education Division Willard Beatty were convinced that Indian education should be rooted in the community and should stress the values of native culture. • Progressive education was applied for the first time during the “New Deal” period: Children learned through the medium of their own cultural values while becoming aware of the values of white civilization.
1930’s Contd. -Indian Service teachers were taught to be sensitive to Indian culture and to use methods adapted to the unique characteristics and needs of Indian children. -Community day schools increased from 132 to 226 and enrollment tripled. By the mid-thirties, the military routine in the boarding schools had been abandoned and children were permitted more social life. -Vocational programs were created to teach skills that would be of use to students if they returned to their reservations. -Job training shifted from an urban emphasis to a rural one. -Indian schools introduced Indian history, art and language. -A directive was issued that there be no interference with Indian religious life or ceremonial expression. -Interest in Indian art grew during the period and in 1935 the Indian Arts and Crafts Board was created. Craft guilds appeared on many reservations and art classes in federal schools were organized.
1940 - 1950 • During World War II, funding for reservations was cut back. Buildings deteriorated and schools were closed. • A 1944 report recommended that students should attend off-reservation boarding schools as they had at the turn of the century. • The first bilingual pamphlets appeared between 1940 and 1945. However, bilingual education was a difficult task--few books were available and few instructors were competent to teach.
1960’s • In 1966, President Lyndon Johnson appoints an American Indian to become commissioner of Indian affairs, Robert Lafollette Bennett. • In 1968, The National Council on Indian Opportunity (NCIO) was established by Executive Order of President Lyndon B. Johnson. This was a new U.S. governmental body established to facilitate Indian participation in U.S. government decision-making concerning Indian policy.
1960’s Contd. • In 1969, Senate Report 91-501 -- commonly known as “the Kennedy Report” was published by the Special Subcommittee on Indian Education, Senate Committee on Labor and Public Welfare. Titled "Indian education: A national tragedy, a national challenge," it said: "the dominant policy of the federal government toward the American Indian has been one of coercive assimilation" and the policy "has had disastrous effects on the education of Indian children." • Boarding schools made a number of curriculum changes and instituted all-Indian school boards. Indian Studies programs appeared in colleges, private foundations increased financial aid, and private companies were tapped for the first time.
Crow Health Issues and Concerns Medicine Wheel of the Crow
Health Concerns • Early on set of Diabetes • Malnutrition • Access to Health Care Facilities • Inadequate Prenatal Care • High Risk for Injury
Major Health Events for the 1930 – 1960 Era • The Merriam Commission spurred a movement during President Franklin D. Roosevelt's administration to improve health conditions for Native Americans. • Active Solicitation • July 1, 1954 Congress transferred all Native American health care programs and responsibilities from the Department of Interior’s Bureau of Indian Affairs to the Department of Health, Education, and Welfares Public Health Services. • ▪ Sparked a pull to get physicians to try government employment working on the reservations.
Games of the Crow • The crow children played numerous games, though many were centered on skills that would affect their ability to maintain self sufficiency. • In a crow myth about grandchildren it is said that “When the old woman …wishes to determine the sex of a youthful intruder, she puts into her garden a twofold bait,- a bow with arrows as well as a shiny stick and ball; since it is the bow and arrows that disappear, she knows it must have been a boy.” • This quote makes it obvious that crow boys have a natural affinity for bows and arrows, and this can be see when analyze their activities.
Games Contd • You can find the male children running around playing games like one which involves gather up pupua grass, making a bundle about a foot long and thicker at one end, and tied it together with sinew or, if away from camp, with willow bark. • The boys split into groups and wagered arrows as to who could get closest to the target or hit it. • Another game the boys would play involved a group of them gathering around a creek and throwing a ring of willow bark into its middle. The boys would then try to grab the ring with hooked sticks from each side of the creek bank, and attempt to pull their opponent into the water.
Games Contd • Shinny or “ball-striking” (bupstaritua) was a game played by women, but a game which young girls played to be like the women. In this game the girls would toss a ball into the air and each group would try to drive the ball into the opposite goal, using 3 foot long poles to hit it. Unlike other tribes, the crow allowed the ball to be carried by hand. This game seems to have been some combination between polo, croquet, and rugby. • The sexes were sometimes pitted against each other in a game with a big dry hide, perforated long the border and with rope run through the holes. • Games varied from tribe to tribe.
Crow Religion • The Crow Indians of this time believed in a supreme being which they called the First Maker or which is also referred to as the guardian spirits, but they did not worship it directly. • They sought his compassion and favor through devotion to various animals and objects of nature that they regarded as possessing supernatural powers. • Medicine men, healers and visionaries were versed in the secrets of nature through their intensive study and worship of their respective gods.
Crow Religion Contd. • Each member of the tribe worshipped their own gods individually or in small groups as members of a particular ritual or ceremony such as the Sacred Pipe Dance, Wound Curing, Sun Dance and many more. • One of the many rituals that the Crows practiced was the Sun Dance which was essentially a prayer of vengeance; the crow believed that by doing the Sun Dance they might be able to get a vision by which they could bring revenge on a rival tribe. • Guardian spirits which generally took the form of animals or features of the natural environment, usually revealed them selves during a vision quest
Religion Contd. • Men would go on visions quests so seek guidance from the spirits. A young man undertaking a vision quest would purify himself first in a sweat lodge, then travel to a sacred mountain top, where he would fast of food and water for 3 days, slept uncovered in the cold fore three nights and sometimes a man might cut off the first joint of one of his fingers and offer it to the rising sun. If he proved his courage and willingness to deprive himself his guardian spirit would appear to him in a vision on the fourth day.
Gender Roles • The Crow are a proud society filled with traditions that are kept for everyday life • Matriarchical Society • Several Clans on the Reservation • Each clan on the reservation is supportive of the others, shares the family responsibilities, and provides for the less fortunate members. • At birth a child becomes a member of his/her mother’s clan and also takes the name of her clan
Dawn Garzon- Crow Indian Technology • The Crow Indians have lived an agricultural life for hundreds of years • On the reservation, Crow Indians practiced irrigated farming and dry land farming to earn an income. • They used portions of grazing land for their herd of buffalo. • The Great Depression and the drought had a huge affect on the Crow Indians.
Technology Contd • Agriculture was affected by the loss of water and irrigation, which affected the diet and lives of the Crow Indians • At the start of the 1930’s the recorded population of the Crow Indians was only 1,963 that lived on the reservation • During the 1930’s, Franklin Roosevelt returned 40,000 acres of land back to the Crow Indian Reservation and stocked it full of buffalo from Yellowstone National Park and the National Bison Range. • This gave the Crow Indians more resources to grow food and make a living for their families. • In the late 1950's the buffalo were found roaming into other areas and during the 1953 harvest, many animals tested positive for brucellosis.
Technology Contd • After a review by the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife it was determined that the only practical solution was to eliminate the herd, which was done from 1962-1964 • More than 44,000 American Indians, out of a total Native American population of less than 350,000, served between 1941 and 1945 in World War II • Women and children were left to work while the men were at war • More than 40,000 American Indian women and children left their reservations to work in ordnance depots, factories, and other war industries