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MARS Model of Individual Behavior

MARS Model of Individual Behavior

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MARS Model of Individual Behavior

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  1. Role Perceptions Motivation Ability Situational Factors MARS Model of Individual Behavior Values Personality Perceptions Emotions Attitudes Stress Individual Behavior and Results

  2. Employee Motivation • Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior • direction • intensity • persistence R M BAR A S

  3. Employee Ability • Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task • competencies  personal characteristics that lead to superior performance • person  job matching • select qualified people • develop employeeabilities through training • redesign job to fit person's existing abilities R M BAR A S

  4. Employee Role Perceptions • Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results: • understanding what tasks to perform • understanding relative importance of tasks • understanding preferredbehaviors to accomplish tasks R M BAR A S

  5. Situational Factors • Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s short-term control that constrain or facilitate behavior • time • people • budget • work facilities R M BAR A S

  6. Types of Behavior in Organizations Task Performance Types ofWork-RelatedBehavior Maintaining Work Attendance Organizational Citizenship Joining/Staying with the Organization Counter- Productive Behaviors

  7. Values in the Workplace • Stable, evaluative beliefs that guide our preferences • Define right or wrong, good or bad • Value system -- hierarchy of values • Values are important because: • Ethical values • Guide employee behavior • Globalization raises awareness of values differences • Influence perceptions, decisions, behavior

  8. Schwartz’s Values Model Self-transcendence Openness to Change Conservation Self-enhancement

  9. Values Congruence • Values congruence -- where two or more entities have similar value systems • Consequences of incongruence • Incompatible decisions • Lower satisfaction and commitment • Increased stress and turnover • Benefits of incongruence • Better decision making • Enhanced problem definition • Prevents “corporate cults”

  10. Hyundai Crosses Cultures in Alabama © AP Photo/Yonhap • When Korean automobile giant Hyundai Motor Company recently opened its manufacturing plant in Montgomery, Alabama, local residents and Hyundai executives alike paid close attention to differences in Korean and American cultural values.

  11. Individualism- Collectivism High Peru Italy Portugal Taiwan Zimbabwe China Turkey Collectivism Mexico Chile Hong Kong Korea U.S.A. France Japan Egypt Low Low High Individualism

  12. Power Distance High Power Distance China The degree that people accept an unequal distribution of power in society Russia Japan U.S.A. Netherlands Low Power Distance

  13. Uncertainty Avoidance High U. A. Japan France The degree that people tolerate ambiguity (low) or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty (high uncertainty avoidance). China U.S.A. Singapore Low U. A.

  14. Achievement-Nurturing Achievement Japan The degree that people value assertiveness, competitiveness, and materialism (achievement) versus relationships and well-being of others (nurturing) U.S.A. China Sweden Nurturing

  15. Long/Short-Term Orientation Long-Term Orientation China Japan The degree that people value thrift, savings, and persistence (long-term) versus past and present issues, respect for tradition and fulfilling social obligations (short-term). Netherlands U.S.A. Russia Short-Term Orientation

  16. Four Ethical Principles Utilitarianism Greatest good for the greatest number of people Individual Rights Fundamental entitlementsin society Distributive Justice People who are similar should receive similar benefits Care Favor those with whom we have special relationships

  17. Influences on Ethical Conduct • Moral intensity • degree that issue demands ethical principles • Ethical sensitivity • ability to recognize the presence and determine the relative importance of an ethical issue • Situational influences • competitive pressures and other conditions affect ethical behavior

  18. Supporting Ethical Behavior • Ethical code of conduct • Establishes standards of behavior • Problem: Limited effect alone on ethical behavior • Ethics training • Awareness and clarification of ethics code • Practice resolving ethical dilemmas • Ethics officers • Educate and counsel; hear about wrongdoing • Ethical leadership • Demonstrate integrity and role model ethical conduct

  19. Defining Personality • Relatively stable pattern of behaviors and consistent internal states that explain a person's behavioral tendencies

  20. Extroversion Openness to Experience Conscientiousness Agreeableness Neuroticism Big Five Personality Dimensions Careful, dependable Courteous, caring Anxious, hostile Sensitive, flexible Outgoing, talkative

  21. Extroversion Introversion vs. Sensing Intuition vs. Thinking Feeling vs. Judging Perceiving vs. Myers-Briggs Type Indicator

  22. Locus of Control and Self-Monitoring • Locus of control • Internals believe in their effort and ability • Externals believe events are mainly due to external causes • Self-monitoring personality • Sensitivity to situational cues, and ability to adapt your behavior to that situation

  23. Holland’s Occupational Choice Theory • Career success depends on fit between the person and work environment • Holland identifies six “themes” • Represent work environment and personality traits/interests • A person aligned mainly with one theme is highly differentiated • A person has high consistency when preferences relate to adjacent themes