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The World at War (again). Grab a WWII Flip book from the front table. This is your study guide for the unit… DO NOT LOSE IT (write your name and period on it NOW) . Answer in your spiral, with partner… . Open the RED book to pages 804-805 “The War Begins”
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Grab a WWII Flip book from the front table • This is your study guide for the unit… DO NOT LOSE IT (write your name and period on it NOW)
Answer in your spiral, with partner… • Open the RED book to pages 804-805 “The War Begins” • Use facts from the reading to support this statement: “During the 1930’s, people were willing to give up their rights.” • Write IMPORTANT FACTS about each of the following countries: Italy, Germany, Japan, the Soviet Union…
1. Explain the differences between Democratic, Fascist and Communist governments? List the type of government each major country had. How might Communist and Fascist governments have had an advantage in fighting a war with democracies? • I. Differences between Democratic, Fascist & Communism • A. Democracies: Based on • Individual Rights • 1. Economic Rights: Capitalism • (Own Business & Make $) • 2. Government Rights: • Democratic Elected Gov’t • a. Choose Leaders by voting in some • way • 3. Examples: United States /Britain / France
B. Fascist: Dictatorship • w/Private Business • 1. Economic Rights: Capitalism • (Own Business & Make $) • 2. Government No Rights: • Totalitarian / Dictatorship • One Person or Party Leader • 3. Examples: Germany / Italy / • Japan
C. Communism: ‘Good’ of everyone no • Individual • 1. Economic No Rights: All Owned by • Gov’t • 2. Government Rights: Totalitarian / Dictatorship: One Person or Party Leader • 3. Examples: Soviet Union (Russia) • D. Advantage & Disadvantages • 1. Communism & Fascism: Gov’t • controls ALL information & there is NO op position • 2. Democracies: People chose to • fight, can elect new leaders any time
Fascism Communism Democracy
Germany (AXIS) • Adolf Hitler (1889-1945) • Born in Austria in 1889, the fourth child of six • Aspired to be an artist, was twice rejected for the Academy for Fine arts in Vienna • Hitler was jailed for just over a year for his role in the Beer Hall Putsch • Used “Emergency Powers” to become Dictator of Germany Hitler fought in World War I, he is in the picture at the far left
Italy (AXIS) • Benito Mussolini (1883-1945) Prime Minister of Italy from 1922 to 1943 • Before WWI, was a journalist • Was known as IL DUCE (the supreme leader)
Great Britain (ALLIES) • Neville Chamberlain (Prime Minister 1937-1940) • -Most famous for his policy of APPEASEMENT towards Hitler • Winston Churchill (Prime Minister 1940-1945) • -Churchill had a speech impediment
Japan (AXIS) • Emperor Hirohito (ruler of Japan from 1926-1989) • There is much debate over how much he controlled Japan during World War II • Many point to General Tojo as the true leader of Japan • When he spoke to Surrender at the end of WWII, it was the first time ordinary citizens had ever heard his voice
Soviet Union (ALLIES) • Josef Stalin (leader of Soviet Union from 1922-1953) • Real name was Joseph Vissarionovich Jugashvili • He adopted the Russian name STALIN, which MEANS STEEL • Aspired to be a Priest • Estimates range from 10,000,000-30,000,000 people killed during Stalin’s regime (more than the Holocaust)
United States (ALLIES) • Franklin Delano Roosevelt (1933-1945) • Only President to serve more than two terms (elected to four terms) • Died on April 12, 1945 (May 8th war ended in Europe) • Harry Truman (President 1945-1953) • -Chosen as Roosevelt’s Vice President for his 4th term in 1944
Leaders of the War Democracy Fascism Communism
Schedule for the start of class • First off, you will take a power vocabulary quiz. • When you are finished, you will put the quiz in the bin in the back and you will grab a BLUE worksheet and a WHITE sheet of paper off the back table. • You are NOT TO WRITE ON THE WHITE SHEET, complete the blue sheet… it is due TODAY!!!! • When finished, work on your Politics chart, study guide #1, or the Venn Diagram!!!
Review: What did the Treaty of Versailles Say about Germany??? Review: Fill in the missing boxes on the Table
Review • Read “The Treaty of Versailles” in the BLUE BOOK on page 677 • What did the Treaty of Versailles do to Germany?
2. Describe the major causes of WWII in Europe. How did the Depression and WWI play a role?What did Hitler say was his reason for expanding Germany’s borders? Name 2 territories Hitler added before fighting. Name and describe the type of warfare Hitler used. What was the reaction of the U.S. to war in Europe? The German inflation of 1923— one dollar worth trillions of marks. • II. Major Causes of WWII in Europe • A. WWI & Depression Major Causes • 1. Winners of WWI harsh on Germany • (Reparations & Small Military)- Humiliation • 2. Great Depression hurts Europe (Germany • Bad) • a. Fascist think Democracy is Weak & can’t help • B. Rise of Fascism due to WWI & Depression • 1. Italy the 1st Fascist Country • a. Upset it didn’t get more after WWI • b. Benito Mussolini comes to power in 1922 • 2. Germany & Adolf Hitler • a. NAZI- National Socialist German Worker • Party • b. Uses ‘Thugs’ – Brown Shirts to beat up • opponents & critics (Young men , no jobs) • c. Wants to blame everyone for Germany’s • trouble: Jews, Democracy!!, The Allies • d. Never Had Majority- Scared or Killed • People Mussolini and Hitler
C. Hitler’s Goals For Revenge!! 1. “LEBENSRAUM” -Living Space’ for Germans a. Take land from non-Germans (Less Human) and give to his even if in another country b. Adds Land & no Fighting: APPEASEMENT -Britain & France give land to avoid War -Austria, Sudetenland (Czechoslovakia- all) 2. Builds Huge Military a. Modern Army with Tanks, Planes & ships -All move Fast & work together (radio) b. BLITZKREIG- ‘Lightning War’ -Nazi's Practice in Spain to help Fascist fight in that Country (Franco) Neville Chamberlain, the Prime Minister of Great Britain, was the “face” of appeasement
Review • Define lebensraum and blitzkrieg • Provide at least two possible reasons why countries did not stop Hitler sooner
Critical Thinking: Why would Adolf Hitler and Germany want to make a peace treaty, at least for awhile (they are BITTER ENEMIES)???? D. War & The Reaction 1. Hitler Invades Poland Sept. 1, 1939 a. Uses Blitzkrieg & destroys Poland b. Britain & France declare WAR -Appeasement was a Joke -Hitler had secret treaty with Soviets (Stalin) 2. United States Reaction a. Officially Neutral & Isolationist -Many famous people almost like Hitler (Ford, Kennedy, Lindbergh) b. Great Britain all Alone!!! (Churchill) -France got butt kicked & Germany controls it -Germany bombing Britain & Planning Attack c. Roosevelt helps Britain -Lend Lease policy (Boats/Guns) -Atlantic Charter- US/Britain are ‘Friends’ -U.S. begins to build up own Military Map showing the Sudetenland, the new protectorate of Bohemia-Moravia, and how Poland was divided after its invasion.
3. Explain Japan’s expansion in the Pacific. Who had taken control of the Japanese government? Which country suffered the most from this expansion? What were their goals for the attack of Pearl Harbor? • III. Japan’s Expansion in the Pacific • A. Military takes control of Japan • 1. Emperor Hirohito’s power???? • (Prisoner??) • a. General Tojo in real power • 2. Wants Japan to be Equal to • European Powers • a. Believes they are better than • all Asians just like Germany in • Europe (which –ISM???) • b. Signs Treaty with Germany Japanese Prime Minister Tojo (center) toasting alliance with Germany
B. Japan wants Raw Materials & • Colonies • 1. Invades China, Korea, • British Colonies • a. Brutal to China ‘Rape of • Nanking’ • -Murder MILLIONS of Chinese • 2. Only competition in Pacific is the • Unites States • a. U.S. has Philippines, • Hawaii, Samoa, Alaska
Pearl Harbor • Pacific Navy stationed there • If Japan is to be attacked by America, how would it be done??? • Goal is to CRIPPLE U.S.
C. Attacking the U.S. – Pearl Harbor • 1. Japan thinks U.S. is Racist (true) & • will try to stop them from growing • (true) • a. U.S. stopped selling Steel & limits • trade to them • 2. Pearl Harbor, Hawaii- Dec. 7th, 1941 • a. Goal to destroy U.S. AIRCRAFT • CARRIERS • - Carriers out to sea & they survive • b. Surprise Attack – U.S. should • have known • -Japanese Code Broke • 3. Waking a “Sleeping Dog” • a. Japanese General said it was a • mistake • b. U.S. declares War • -Roosevelt – “ A day that will live in infamy” • Germany declares war on U.S. The USS Arizona (BB-39) burning after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. Aircraft damage at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii from Japanese attack.
Facts from attack • Facts: first wave 181 planes, second wave 170 planes • Over 90 ships anchored, 21 ships sunk/damaged, 188 airplanes destroyed 159 damaged, 2403 people killed • Only 29 planes failed to return Of the damaged ships, only THREE did not return to action, plus AIRCRAFT CARRIERS were not in Pearl Harbor!
Location of ships Major Ships at harbor: USS Arizona - Magazine explosion, sunk with few survivors USS California - Sunk USS Maryland - Damaged USS Nevada - Damaged and run aground USS Oklahoma - Capsized and sunk USS Pennsylvania - Damaged. The Pennsylvania was in dry dock USS Tennessee - Damaged USS West Virginia - Sunk
Battleships USS West Virginia and USS Tennessee after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on Dec. 7, 1941.
Photograph of the USS Nevada beached at Hospital Point after the attack on Pearl Harbor.
Captured Japanese photograph taken during the attack on Pearl Harbor, Dec. 7, 1941. In the foreground, part of Battleship Row. In the distance, the smoke rises from Hickam Field.
Rotation Questions • Rotation One: Rationing • Explain why rationing was needed • Predict and Explain which item was needed most for the war effort • Explain which item would be hardest for you to ration… • Rotation Two: Women in War • Explain the acronyms WACS and WAVES • Women were needed because… • Just recently women were recognized for their service in WWII, why do you think it took so long (64 years)? • Rotation Three: Psychological Warfare 1) Choose one, explain what you see: 2) Imagine being a soldier and picking this up… what impact might it have? 3) Any negatives parts of this leaflet? Explain 4) What other ways could you play mind games with your opponents?
6. Describe how Americans helped the war effort at home. What group faced discrimination during the war? How? What is the Selective Service? What did the U.S. do to make sure there were enough supplies and food for troops? VI. Everyone Helps at Home A. Factories & Farms Roar 1. Huge amounts produced : NO Bombing makes it easy 2. Ladies to the Rescue: Women take factory jobs (Rosie the Riveter) B. Ration Books: Coupons that limit how much of anything you can buy in a time (week, month, year) 1. Tires / Shoes / Sugar / Butter / Gas 2. Some things not available: Panty Hose (Parachutes) C. We Need Troops 1. Selective Service (Draft) a. Men 18-35 must serve if called b. Still around today (Register @ 18) 2. Women Serve (WAC’s & WAVES) a. Army & Navy women’s service (Pilots, Nurses)
D. Racism at Home (Fighting NAZI’s???) 1. Japanese-Americans: ‘Not loyal’?? a. Starts in Pearl Harbor: Not trusted Ex.-Planes b. Japanese Internment Camps -Japanese on west Cost moved to Camps -Lose Property / Homes / Business -Supreme Court & Roosevelt Support It 2. Army Still Segregated a. Tuskegee Airmen: All Black fighter pilots b. Nisei Battalion: Japanese Am. Fight in Italy c. Navajo Code Talkers: Native Am. Use language as radio men to keep Japanese clueless
2. Army still segregated a. Tuskegee Airmen: All Black fighter pilots b. Nisei Battalion: Japanese Amer. fight in Italy c. Navajo Code Talkers: Native Amer. use language as radio men to keep Japanese clueless
Nisei Battalion consisted mainly of 2nd generation Japanese-Americans from Hawaii, they were called the “Purple Heart Battalion” due to their high casualty rate.
4. Explain Hitler’s defeat. What two types of governments teamed up to defeat Hitler? Why was that important geographically? What was D-Day? Name the American general in charge of the Allies. What happened to Hitler? • OBJ # 4 • IV. Hitler’s Defeat in Europe • A. Germany Unstoppable Early • 1. Blitzkrieg Kills : Poland & France (1939, 1940) • 2. The Battle of Britain: Britain Becomes Fortress (July 1940) • a. Germany Bombs daily: air attack before land invasion • b. RAF fights back, destroying 2,300 Luftwaffe aircraft!!! (RADAR) • c. Churchill – “Never Surrender” The “British Bulldog” Winston Churchill Firemen battle the flames of a German bombing attack on London, 1941