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Chapter 9
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Chapter 9

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  1. Chapter 9 Marketing Channels

  2. Channel Functions Information gathering Consumer motivation Negotiating with suppliers Placing orders Financing Inventory management Risk bearing After sales support

  3. Channel Functions……. A Physical reach Customer contact Building relationships Market feedback Understand market trends and keep principals informed Handle price risks Finances market credit and inventory holdings Provide after sales service

  4. Role of Intermediaries Company 1 Company 2 Company 3 Intermediary Large number of CONSUMERS Direct and Indirect….

  5. Channel Flows Forward flow – company to its customers – goods and services Backward flow – customers to the company – payment for the goods. Returned goods. Flows both ways - information SDM- Ch 9 5

  6. Three Flows Recognized FORWARD Goods and Services BACKWARD Payment for goods / returns BOTH WAYS Information Company Customers SDM- Ch 9 6

  7. Channel Flows Some channel member/s have to perform them There is a cost associated with each flow If a channel member is discontinued, the flow has to be performed by another All flows and transactions can be effective only with timely, accurate and correct information The channel flow is ideally to be handled by the most competent channel member who can deliver best service at the lowest cost. SDM- Ch 9 7

  8. The Five Channel Flows Physical flow Title flow of goods (negotiation, ownership and risk sharing also) Payment flows (financing and payment) Information flow (about goods, orders placed and orders executed) Promotion flows SDM- Ch 9 8

  9. Physical flow :-transportation and storage of the product in order to physically deliver the product to end-user • Title flow (i) Ownership :- nominally taking title to the product so that in case the product is damaged or lost due to any reason ,the loss is accounted for (ii) Promotion :- promoting the product to the customers in several ways like advertising ,displaying demonstrating ,giving information about ,etc

  10. (iii) Negotiating :- coming to an agreement about the terms of trade with the upstream and down stream entities in the channel including the customer • Financing :- taking care of the financial requirement of the members of the channel • Ordering payment :- receiving and recording the orders, consolidating it and passing it on to the upstream receiving payments ,recording it, consolidating it , and passing it on to the upstream

  11. Degree of Involvement Channel formats… SDM- Ch 9 11

  12. Channel Formats Is decided by who ‘drives’ the channel system: Producer driven Seller driven Service driven Others SDM- Ch 9 12

  13. Producer Driven This is the effort of the manufacturer to reach the product to his consumers. Examples: Company owned retail outlets – petrol, Bata, Reliance mobiles Licensed outlets – KMF Consignment selling agents Franchisees Brokers Vending machines SDM- Ch 9 13

  14. Seller Driven Use of existing channels to reach the largest number of end users Existing wholesalers and retailers Modern retail formats Specialty stores Discount stores – like the eralier Subhiksha Pheriwalas SDM- Ch 9 14

  15. Service Driven These are the people who facilitate the distribution Transporters and freight forwarders Providers of warehouse space C&F agents 3P Logistics service providers Couriers SDM- Ch 9 15

  16. Other formats Multi-level marketing systems – Amway, Tupperware Co-operative societies TV home shopping Catalogue marketing The internet Exhibitions, fairs and trade shows Data base marketing Channel levels… SDM- Ch 9 16

  17. Channel Levels Zero level – if the product or service is provided to the end user directly by the company. Used mostly by companies delivering service like health, education, banking (also known as service channels) One level – consists of one intermediary Two level – consists of two intermediaries and is the most common for FMCG products SDM- Ch 9 17

  18. Service Channel Companies establish their own unique channels to deliver services like health, education, banking, insurance etc Hundreds of bank branches to be close to prospects Banks may also recruit independent agents to get customers to walk in Musician or magician may use mass media, events or web sites to reach customers SDM- Ch 9 18

  19. Marketing Channel Systems Vertical: Corporate Administered Contractual Horizontal Multi-channel Vertical….

  20. Vertical Marketing System Various parties like producers, wholesalers and retailers act as a unified system to avoid conflicts Improves operating efficiency and marketing effectiveness 3 types: Corporate Administered Contractual Corporate…

  21. Corporate VMS Combines successive stages of production and distribution under single ownership Examples: Bata, Bombay Dyeing, Raymond Administered…

  22. Administered VMS Co-ordinates distribution activities Gains market power by dominating a channel Usually true of dominant brands like GE, Kodak, Pepsi, Gillette, Coke and HLL in certain locations Command high level of co-operation in shelf space, co-operation from resellers, displays, pricing policies and promotion strategies Contractual…

  23. Contractual VMS Independent producers, wholesalers and retailers operate on a contract Could take the forms of: Wholesaler sponsored voluntary chains Retailer co-operatives Manufacturer sponsored retail or wholesale franchise Franchise organizations Service firm sponsored retail franchise

  24. Horizontal MS Two or more unrelated companies join together to pool resources and exploit an emerging market opportunity In-store banking in hotels, big stores Retail outlets in petrol bunks Coffee Day outlets in airports Multi-channel…

  25. Multi-channel Distribution Company uses different channels to reach / same or different market segments Most FMCG companies have separate networks for retail market and institutions Most B2B firms use multi-channels for customer segments like Government, institutions etc

  26. Multi-channel Distribution Used in situations where: Same product but different market segments Unrelated products in same market – detergents and ice creams (HLL) Size of buyers varies Geographic concentration of potential consumers varies Reach is difficult Benefits include lower cost, better market coverage and customized selling