Here ye, Here ye. King Richard the Lion-Hearted will be traveling through Nottingham whilst recruiting for a new army to free the Holy Lands from the Infidels. The Sherriff of Nottingham is hereby commanded to host a feast in honor of His Majesty. All inhabitants of these lands are expected to attend.
Who Are the Inhabitants of Nottingham? The Bad Guys The Good Guys Robin Hood and his gang The serfs/peasants in villages (others must go with their Lords) Some Lords, Ladies and their Knights and retinue • Sherriff of Nottingham • Sir Guy Guisborne • Sheriff’s Knights • Prince John • Lords, Ladies, Knights and retinue
Feudalism -- the country was not governed by the king but by individual lords ruled their own estates dispensed their own justice made their own money and demanded military service from knights/vassals. Feudalism KING LOYALTY AND SERVICE LAND LORDS LOYALTY AND MILITARY SERVICE LAND AND PROTECTION KNIGHTS LABOR PROTECTION SERFS/PEASANTS
How the Medieval period began… • Period begins in 1066 • Battle of Hastings --marks the Norman invasion of England • Normans came from France and conquered England, changing England forever • Brought centralized rule, establishing feudalism • changed English language by introducing new words influenced by French
Churchmen The church was the main focus of community life. • Priest was appointed by the lord • kept up the church • provided hospitality to travelers. • The priest officiated at church services, weddings, baptisms, funerals, and visited the ill. • Earned income for parish lands, fees for services, and tithe money. • Friars • first appeared in the 13th century. • They were clergy not attached to any • particular parish, and indeed had no • visible means of support.
Friars (cont) They rejected the monastic ideal of seclusion • went to live among townspeople • survived by begging. • Monks • These were highly educated and lived in monasteries. • They Took vows of poverty, chastity and obedience. • Their life was one of work and prayer.
Peasants • The Peasant's Life. • Villages consisted of from 10-60 families living in rough huts on dirt floors, with no chimneys or windows. • Often, one end of the hut was given over to storing livestock. Furnishings were sparse • they did not work on Sundays or on the saints' days • they could go to nearby fairs and markets Serfs • The Serf's Life. • a serf was bound to a lord for life. • could not own property • needed the lord's permission to marry • could not leave the land without the lord's permission unless he chose to run away. • However, the serf did have rights. • He could not be displaced if the manor changed hands. • He could not be required to fight • was entitled to the protection of the lord
Knights A Knight's Obligations. • required to attend the lord at his court • help administer justice • must fight in battle when called • must feed and house the lord and his company when they traveled across his land. • Knights wore sleeveless "surcoats" covered with a coat of arms.
Nobility • A Lord's Obligations. • obliged to protect the knights • give military aid • guard vassal’s children CLOTHING • Men • tighter fitting tunics • Stockings completed the ensemble. • Women • Wore "kirtles", which were tunics worn to their ankles. • often worn over a shirt. • the more affluent women wore more luxurious clothing • Women, especially those who were married, wore tight-fitting caps and nets over their hair, hair was wound in a "bun" on their heads. • Other women wore veils over their hair, which was left either hanging loosely, or braided tightly.
Other Roles The middle class began to emerge in medieval times Millers ground the grain that the farmer's provided them. Richest and most disliked: everyone was required ot use the mill Blacksmithsmade the tools which most of the other workers needed to do their job Carpenters repaired wooden objects like buildings and carts Bakers were responsible for providing food made out of bread to those who were not farmers. Shoemakers and seamstresses kept the town's clothes in descent shape. Candlemakers helped keep the homes lit. Thatchers helped to make thatch roofs for barns and other buildings.
Clothing for the Middle Class The craftspeople dressed like The nobility, but in fabrics that they could afford. Woven fabrics such as linen and wool were common.
Names • Each name is composed of a minimum of a first name (also referred to as a given name) and a last name (sometimes referred to as a byname or a surname).
People were given last names to distinguish them from other people in the area with the same first name: either bynames or surnames. Bynames were last names given to an individual (not passed from generation to generation). They were straightforward, chosen by the neighbors/family for the individual, not selected by the person themselves. Last names were not passed on in the 12th century.
Last names (whether a byname or a surname) fall into basic types: relationship (Robert son of Richard), occupational (Robin Hood), epithet (not a swear but a phrase that describes a trait of the person: ie William the Red for a red-haired man or Little John or King Richard the Lion Hearted)
There is a list of common first names for the Nottingham region of England for you to reference with Mr. Dixon or Ms. Mitchell. You will need to make up a byname as well. This will require you to design your character a bit first. Will your character be a “baddy” or a “goodie” ???
Peasants ate Bread made from barley and rye Ales made from barley Pottage (think thin soup from peas or beans) Raw vegetables were considered unhealthy and rarely eaten Food Foods and diets depended on the class of the individual. • Lords ate • Meat • Milled flour and meal made from grain (nice bread) • Dairy • Spices and food brought back from middle east • Mead (a fermented honey drink)
Noble Banquets Extravagant feasts are a hallmark of the medieval era! Menus for the wealthy were extensive, but only small portions were taken. Social etiquette dictated that an extensive choice of foods should be made available Returning Crusaders created interest in beauty: fabulous food arrangements with exotic colors and flavorings -
Medieval Menu First Service Herb salut Pottage Makerouns Second Service Roasted Chicken Guilded Apples Pork Pie Third Service Venison Pie Game Fowl Drip pudding Final Service Fruit fritters Stewed pears cheese
Etiquette The most important guest, sat first, while everyone stood, and no one ate anything until the Lord of the house had done so first; neither did people eat until the whole course had been served to the table, (each course had several different dishes in it). The priest would collect alms (leftover food) in bowls to be given to the poor. The trenchers, soaked with food, were fed to dogs or serfs. When food was expected to be served from one container people were to do so only ever touching the shared food with their left hand. WHY? People served themselves. People brought their own cutlery Primarily used were the fingers, eating off bread plates, (trenchers) but guests were expected to bring their own knife to cut up food, a spoon for pottage and broths, and a cup or mug to drink out of.
The Crusades A series of military campaigns fought mainly against Muslims (1095-1291) The goal was to recapture Jerusalem and the Holy Land from the Muslims ”Holy War” All were expensive and only the first wave was successful. Despite this, droves of men of all classes volunteered: few returned. Some think that limited land, food shortages and few opportunities explain why the crusades were popular despite the risks.