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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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Sexually Transmitted Diseases

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  1. Sexually Transmitted Diseases Bacteria Caused by

  2. Gonorrhea (GC)

  3. Gonorrhea (GC) • STD caused by a bacterium • Organism: Neisseria gonorrhoeae • Location: Secretions in the vagina, cervix, uterus, fallopian tubes in women and the urethra (urine canal) in women and men

  4. Symptoms of Gonorrhea • Many females have no symptoms • Some females have a vaginal discharge and/or pelvic/abdominal pain • Males usually have pain with urinating and may have a discharge from the penis • Can spread to many body parts causing infections (eyes, joints, throat, rectum . . .)

  5. How is Gonorrhea Spread? • Skin to skin contact with the infected secretions during sexual activity (vaginal, oral, or anal sex) • Mother to child during childbirth

  6. Is Gonorrhea Serious? • Can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID – a severe infection of the uterus, tubes, and ovaries) in females • PID can lead to: • infertility (can’t get pregnant) • tubal pregnancies • chronic pelvic pain • Easier to get HIV if you are infected with Gonorrhea

  7. Is Gonorrhea Common? • 650,000 NEW cases each year in the U.S. • Total number of currently infected unknown

  8. How is GC Diagnosed? • Lab Tests (culture) of the secretions from the infected area (cervix, urethra, rectum, throat) • Urine specimen

  9. Treatment of Gonorrhea • Antibiotics by mouth or injection • Despite treatment, Gonorrhea may lead to Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID), an infection of the uterus, tubes, and ovaries

  10. Can Gonorrhea be Prevented? • Condoms have not been proven to greatly reduce the spread in females • Abstinence is 100% effective

  11. Gonorrhea: Summary • Can be spread through skin to skin contact during sexual activity • Thousands in the U.S. are infected • Treatment is available • Despite treatment, may lead to PID

  12. References • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Gonorrhea Fact Sheet. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Fact_Sheets/FactsGonorrhea.htm Accessed October 31, 2002. • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. STD Clinical Slides. Available at http://www2.cdc.gov/STDclinic/ Accessed Nov. 2, 2002. • Health Awareness Connection. Young People's Guide to Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs)and AIDS/HIV Disease. Available at http://www.healthac.org Accessed October 31, 2002.

  13. Chlamydia

  14. Chlamydia • STD caused by a bactera • Organism: Chlamydia trachomatis • Location: Secretions in the vagina, cervix, urethra inside the penis, urine

  15. Symptoms of Chlamydia • Many females have no symptoms • Some females have a vaginal discharge and/or pelvic/abdominal pain • Males usually have pain with urinating and may have a discharge from the penis

  16. How is Chlamydia Spread? • Skin to skin contact with the infected secretions during sexual activity (mucous membranes of cervix and penis)

  17. Is Chlamydia Serious? • Can cause Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) in females (severe infection of the uterus, tubes, and ovaries) • PID can lead to: • infertility (can’t get pregnant) • tubal pregnancies • chronic pelvic pain

  18. Is Chlamydia Common? • 3,000,000 NEW cases each year in the U.S. • Most frequently reported bacterial STD in the U.S. • Total number of infected people in U.S. unknown

  19. How is Chlamydia Diagnosed? • Culture of cervix in females • Culture of urethra in males • Urine test

  20. Treatment of Chlamydia • Antibiotics by mouth • Sexual partners must also be treated • Despite treatment, females may still get PID

  21. Can Chlamydia be Prevented? • Condoms have not been proven to greatly reduce transmission • Abstinence is 100% effective

  22. Chlamydia: Summary • Can be spread through skin to skin contact with infected secretions during sexual activity • Most females who are infected are not aware and can spread it to others • Millions in the U.S. are infected • Can cause PID • Treatment is available

  23. References • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Chlamydia, Disease Information Fact Sheet.. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Fact_Sheets/FactsChlamydiaInfo.htm Accessed October 31, 2002. • Society of Health Advisers in Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Chlamydia. Available at http://www.shastd.org.uk/sti/chlamydia.htm Accessed November 6, 2002. • Life Saving Cures. Various Pictures of STD's. Available at http://www.sexually-transmitted-diseases-stds-symptoms-pictures-testing.com/std_pictures.htm Accessed November 7, 2002.

  24. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV)

  25. Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) • An infection caused by a bacteria • Organism: Anaerobic bacteria – imbalance of bacteria normally found in a woman’s vagina (increase in the “harmful” bacteria) • Location: vagina

  26. Symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis • White or grayish vaginal discharge with an unpleasant odor (often strong fish-like odor especially after intercourse) • Vaginal • Pain • Itching • Burning • Some have no symptoms

  27. How is Bacterial Vaginosis Spread? • Vaginal intercourse – women who have a new sex partner or who have had multiple sex partners are more likely to develop BV • Women who have never had sexual intercourse are rarely affected with this imbalance of bacteria in the vagina

  28. Is BV Serious? • Can cause pelvic inflammatory disease • Pregnant women with BV more often have babies who are born early or with low birth weight

  29. Is BV Common? • Most common vaginal infection in women of childbearing age • 16% of pregnant women have BV

  30. How is BV Diagnosed? • Pelvic exam • Tests on the vaginal fluid to look for the increase in harmful bacteria

  31. Treatment of BV • Antibiotics • By mouth (pills) • In vaginal creams

  32. Can Bacterial Vaginosis be Prevented? • Bacterial Vaginosis is linked to having new or multiple sexual partners • There is no scientific evidence to show that condoms prevent BV • If you don’t have sex, you don’t have to worry about getting BV

  33. Bacterial Vaginosis: Summary • Can be spread through vaginal sex • Foul smelling white or grayish vaginal discharge • Very common infection • Treatment is available

  34. References • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Bacterial Vaginosis Fact Sheet . Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Fact_Sheets/FactsBV.htm Accessed October 31, 2002. • Society of Health Advisers in Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Bacterial Vaginosis. Available at http://www.shastd.org.uk/sti/bvag.htm Accessed November 6, 2002.

  35. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

  36. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) • Disease as a result of bacterial infections • Organisms: Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Bacterial Vaginosis • Location: Infection of the uterus, tubes, ovaries

  37. Symptoms of PID • Women may have only mild pain or no symptoms even though serious damage to their internal reproductive organs may be occurring • Many patients have lower abdominal pain, fever, vaginal discharge, pain with vaginal intercourse

  38. How is PID Spread? • Vaginal intercourse with an infected partner • The more sex partners a woman has, the greater the risk of PID

  39. Is PID Serious? • PID can cause permanent damage (scar tissue) to the fallopian tubes • If the tubes are totally blocked by scar tissue, the egg and sperm cannot meet causing infertility • Estimated 100,000 women become infertile (can’t get pregnant) each year as a result of PID

  40. Is PID Serious? • If the tubes are partially blocked or slightly damaged, the fertilized egg can get stuck in the tube (tubal or ectopic pregnancy) • An ectopic pregnancy can rupture the tube and cause severe pain, internal bleeding, and even death • Scarring of the fallopian tubes and ovaries can also cause pelvic pain that lasts for months or even years

  41. Is PID Common? • 1,000,000 NEW cases each year in the U.S. • More than 100,000 women are diagnosed with infertility each year • More than 150 women die from this infection every year

  42. How is PID Diagnosed? • PID is difficult to diagnose because symptoms are often mild and many cases go undetected • No precise tests, cultures of the cervix to test for chlamydia and gonorrhea should be performed in women with lower abdominal pain who are sexually active • Ultrasound and surgery may be necessary to diagnose PID

  43. Treatment of PID • Antibiotics by mouth (pills) or intravenous (I.V.) in the hospital can kill the bacteria causing the PID • Antibiotics CANNOT reverse any damage that has already occurred to the fallopian tubes • About 25% of women with PID must be admitted to the hospital

  44. Can PID be Prevented? • If you don’t have sex, you won’t get chlamydia and gonorrhea. • If you don’t get chlamydia and gonorrhea, you won’t get PID.

  45. PID: Summary • Caused by STDs • Acquired only through sexual activity • Many may not have symptoms • Causes infertility • Millions in the U.S. have PID

  46. References • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Division of Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) fact sheet. Available at http://www.cdc.gov/nchstp/dstd/Fact_Sheets/FactsPID.htm Accessed October 31, 2002.

  47. Syphilis

  48. Syphilis • STD caused by a bactera • Organism: Treponema pallidum • Location: • Chancre (painless sore) on the genital area • Rash on the hands/feet and other areas of the body

  49. Symptoms of Syphilis • Primary Stage: Painless sore on the genital area, mouth, lips • Secondary Stage: Rash on hands, feet, and other areas of body • Late Stage: Paralysis, numbness, blindness, dementia, death

  50. How is Syphilis Spread? • Skin to skin contact with syphilis sores during sexual activity (outercourse, oral, anal, vaginal sex) • Sores can also occur on the lips and mouth • Because syphilis sores can be hidden in the vagina, rectum, or mouth, it may not be obvious that a sex partner has syphilis