SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES HUMAN SEXUALITY
STD’S: THE FACTS These facts apply to all STD’s: • You cannot tell by looking at someone whether he or she is infected with an STD. • There may be no symptoms early in an infection, or the symptoms may be confused with other illnesses. • The more partners you have, the higher your chance of being exposed to HIV or other STD’s. • Using drugs and alcohol increases your chances of getting STD’s because you may behave differently under the influence than you would otherwise. Also you may not use a condom properly, or remember what you did the night before. • Intravenous drug use puts a person at risk because users may share needles.
STD’S: THE FACTS Symptoms that may indicate an STD: • Discharge from vagina, penis, or rectum. • Pain or burning during urination or intercourse. • Pain in the abdomen (women), testicles (men). • Blisters, open sores, warts, rash, or swelling in the genital or anal areas, lips mouth or throat. • Persistent flu-like symptoms- which may include fever, headache, aching muscles, or swollen glands – may occur before STD symptoms appear.
OVERVIEW OF STD’S • Early symptoms are often mild. • IF left untreated, can cause blindness, disfigurement, death, etc.. • Infants born to mothers carrying the STD are at risk for a variety of health problems. • Men and Women have similar symptoms.
MEN Drip or drainage from penis Sore bumps/ blisters Burning or pain when urinating Fever, chills, aches Swelling of genitals Frequent urination WOMEN Vaginal discharge/ odor from vagina Pain in lower pelvis or in vagina during sex Burning or itching around vagina Bleeding at times other than the regular menstrual period. OVERVIEW OF SYMPTOMS
Modes of Transmission: • STD’s are generally spread through some form of intimate sexual contact. • Occasionally, pathogens from STD’s are transmitted from mouth to mouth or through fluids from body sores. • STD pathogens prefer dark, moist places, especially the mucous membranes lining the reproductive organs. • Most of them are susceptible to light, excess heat, cold, and dryness, many die quickly from exposure to air.
Tops the list of the most commonly reported infections in the U.S. It infects about 4 million people annually in the U.S. If left untreated, can cause blindness. If detected early, it is easily treatable with antibiotics. Chlamydia-A disease that often presents no symptoms.
Male Symptoms Painful/ Frequent urination Watery puslike discharge from penis. Female Symptoms Yellowish discharge Spotting between periods. Occasional spotting after intercourse. Chlamydia
Male Can suffer damage to the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and the bulb urethral gland. Arthritis Damage to the blood vessels and heart. Female Can cause harm to cervix or fallopian tubes which can lead to sterility. Damage to the inner pelvic structure, leading to pelvic inflammatory disease. Chlamydia (Secondary Damages)
Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) • A term used to describe a number of infections of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries. • Often results from an untreated STD, especially Chlamydia or gonorrhea. • It is not actually an STD. • Nonsexual causes of PID are, excessive vaginal douching, cigarette smoking, and substance abuse.
Symptoms Acute inflammation of the pelvic cavity Severe depression Severe pain in lower abdomen Menstrual irregularities Fever Nausea Painful intercourse Secondary consequences Infertility Miscarriages Chronic pelvic pain Recurrent upper genital infections Treatment: -Regular gynecologist exams and early treatment of STD symptoms reduce risk. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)
GONORRHEA • One of the most common STI’s in the U.S. • Primarily infects: lining of uterus, genital tract, rectum. • It may be spread to the eyes or other body regions via the hands or other body fluids.
Male symptoms White/milky discharge from penis. Painful, burning urination. Fever Female Symptoms Discharge from vagina. Burning sensation during urination. Fever A woman can be unaware that she has been infected and that she is infecting her sexual partners. Gonorrhea
Syphilis • Typically is transferred through sexual contact, but may enter the body through breaks in the skin, through deep kissing or other transmission of body fluids. • Syphilis is called the “great imitator” because its symptoms resemble those of several other infections. • If left untreated, it will progress through distinct stages. • Some people experience no symptoms at all!
Primary Syphilis (1st stage) • Often characterized by the development of a chancre, a sore at the site of initial infection. • Is dime sized and painless, but oozes with bacteria, ready to infect an unsuspecting partner. • Appears 3-4 weeks after contact.
Secondary Syphilis • Months to years after the chancre disappears, secondary symptoms may appear including: -Rash or white patches on the skin or on the mucus membranes of the mouth, throat , or genitals. -Hair loss -Lymph nodes enlarge -Slight fever or headache -Sores around the mouth or genitals
Latent Syphilis • Begins to invade body organs and symptoms of infectious lesions may reappear periodically for 2-4 years after the secondary period.
Late Syphilis Includes: • Heart damage • Central nervous system damage • Blindness • Paralysis • Insanity TREATMENT: ANTIBIOTICS
PUBIC LICE (a.k.a. “Crabs”) • Small parasites that are usually transmitted during sexual contact. • More irritating STI, moves easily from partner to partner during sex. • They have an affinity for pubic hair, attaching themselves to the base of these hairs, where they deposit their eggs. • One to two weeks later, the eggs develop into mature cells that migrate to other body parts, thus perpetuating the cycle.
Pubic Lice Other forms of transmission: • Can catch pubic lice from lying on sheets that an infected person has slept on. • Sleeping in hotels and dormitory rooms where sheets are not washed regularly will put you at risk. • Also sitting on toilet seats where the larvae have been dropped and lie and wait for a new carrier will put you at risk. Treatment: -washing clothing, furniture, linens that may hold the eggs. -takes 2-3 weeks to kill al larval forms.
Genital Warts (HPV) • Caused by a small group of viruses known as human papillomavirus (HPV’s). • A person becomes infected when an HPV penetrates the skin and mucous membrane through sexual contact. • Many people have no symptoms, particularly if the warts are located inside the reproductive tract. • Others may develop a series of itchy bumps on the genitals, ranging in size from small pinheads to large cauliflower-like growths.
Types Full-blown genital warts – noticeable as tiny bumps or growths. Flat warts- not usually visible to the naked eye Risks/Treatments Can grow and generate unsightly flaps of irregular flesh on the external genitalia. Usually disappear on their own. Treated with topical medications or removed by freezing with liquid nitrogen. Large warts may require surgical removal. Genital Warts
HERPES Genital Herpes • Infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). • Can infect any area of the body, producing lesions (sores) in and around the vaginal area, penis, anal opening, buttocks, or thighs. • HSV remains in nerve cells for life, it can flare up or cause symptoms when the body’s immune system is weakened.
HERPES (phases) Prodromal Phase • Characterized by burning sensation and redness at the size of infection Second Phase • A blister filled with clear fluid containing the virus forms. If you break the blister, you may spread this fluid with your fingers, lipstick, lip balm, etc., you can also auto inoculate other body parts. • If spread to the eyes it can cause blindness
HERPES (prevention) • NO CURE for herpes at present time, certain drugs can reduce symptoms. • Avoid any form of kissing if you notice a sore or blister on your partner’s mouth. • Wash your hand immediately with soap or water after any forms of sexual contact. • If you have questionable sores or lesions, seek medical help immediately.
WEBSITES HUMAN BODY ATLAS FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS HEPATITIS