sexually transmitted diseases n.
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  2. Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) • Any pathogen that spreads from one person to another during sexual contact. • (Such infections are sometimes called sexually transmitted diseases, or STD’s)

  3. Harmful Effects of STIs • Short term may cause: • Pain • Discomfort • Embarrassment • Long term may cause: • Increased risk of certain cancers • Increased risk of infertility in both men and women

  4. Many STIs can be treated with medicines, but some are incurable. • If left untreated, some STIs are fatal. • People do not develop immunity to STIs after being infected. • A person can be cured, and then reinfected with the same STI.

  5. Risky Behaviors • Ignoring Risks: • Being sexually active and not taking any precautions against infection • Don’t realize the risks of contracting STIs or choose to ignore the risks. • Adolescents tend to ignore the risks, thinking “It can’t happen to me”, but it can and happens to many teens.

  6. Multiple Partners: • Many people begin in sexual activity at a young age • Some people have multiple partners during their lifetime. • The more sexual partners a person has, the greater the chance of getting an STI.

  7. Not Seeking Treatment: • Some people don’t seek treatment due to embarrassment. • Others don’t know they have an STI because they don’t know the symptoms. • Some STIs have no symptoms and can only be detected by laboratory tests.

  8. Continued… • Sometimes the symptoms go away temporarily, leading the person to think the infection has been cured. • The infection may go untreated, increasing the chances that the person will spread it to others.

  9. Avoiding STIs • Practice Abstinence • Avoid Drugs • Choose Responsible Friends

  10. Practice Abstinence • The BEST way to avoid STIs is to practice sexual abstinence. • Sexual abstinence means not having sexual intercourse, oral sex, or anal sex. • Even teens who have not been abstinent up to point can still choose abstinence now. • Teens that are sexually active should be tested for STIs.

  11. Avoid Drugs • Blood to blood contact • Use of illegal drugs or inject steroids run a high risk of contracting certain STIs when sharing needles that have been contaminated with blood or an infected person. • People who get tattoos run a risk of being infected with a contaminated needle.

  12. Continued… • Sharing partners – anyone who engages in sexual activity with someone who has come into contact with an infected needle is at risk

  13. Drugs, including alcohol, also play an indirect role. • Alcohol and other drugs impair the ability to think clearly, people may make decisions they later regret. • For example, they may engage in sexual behaviors that place them at risk for STIs.

  14. Choosing Responsible Friends • Best way to practice abstinence and avoid drugs is to have friends that have the same values. • Friends who support your decisions can make it easier to resist the peer pressure to engage in sexual behavior. • Going out as groups, rather than as couples, can make it easier to choose abstinence.

  15. Parents, teachers and other adults can also provide support for healthy behavior choices. • It may feel uncomfortable at first to talk to a parent or other adult about the pressures to engage in sexual activity. • Most adults can offer helpful advice about choosing abstinence as the responsible and healthy choice.

  16. Three most common STIs • Trichomoniasis • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) • Chlamydia

  17. Trichomoniasis • Caused by a protozoan that infects the urinary tract or vagina. • In males symptoms include: • Painful urination • A clear discharge from the penis • Some itching • Most males experience no symptoms at all.

  18. In females symptoms include: • Itching and burning in the vagina • An unpleasant smelling • Yellowish discharge • Pain when urinating

  19. A doctor can prescribe medicine to cure trichomoniasis infection. • In males, if untreated, can lead to inflammation of the lining of the urethra, called urethritis. • In females, if untreated, can lead to vaginitis which is a vaginal infection or irritation.

  20. Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) • Most common viral STI in the USA. • In many cases, HPV causes no symptoms, so people may not be aware they are infected. • A vaccine made for females, should get between the ages of 9-27 • Hangs out in the cervix and could cause cancer Cervical Cancer, get a Pap test before it become life threatening

  21. Some forms of HPV cause genital warts, which may itch or burn. • A doctor can remove the warts, but some may reappear. • Sometimes the body’s immune system will destroy the virus, clearing the body of infection. • In some people, HPV remains in the body for life.

  22. CHLAMYDIA • Most common reported bacteria STI in the USA • Has no symptoms • Causes problems with organs, joints and reproductive organs • Bacteria, treated with antibiotics

  23. Infected males – experience painful, frequent urination and discharge from the penis. • If untreated may lead to urethritis. • In females-has no symptoms other than yellowish vaginal discharge.

  24. If untreated can cause a serious infection of the reproductive organs called pelvic inflammatory disease (PID). • Can lead to infertility or an ectopic pregnancy, a potentially fatal condition where fertilized egg implants somewhere other than in the uterus. • A pregnancy woman can transmit Chlamydia to her baby during birth. If the infected infant survives, it may suffer damage to the lungs or eyes.

  25. Other STIs • Gonorrhea • Syphilis • Herpes • Hepatitis

  26. GONORRHEA • Males – burning when urinating/puss • Females – no symptoms, usually carriers • Bacteria, treated with antibiotics • Can cause reproductive problems if not treated • Can be transmitted to baby during birth

  27. SYPHILLIS • “Great Imitator” • Effects every organ in the body • 1.) Skin Legion • 2.) Get into other legions of the body

  28. 3.) Can get into the brain and cause tertiary syphilis • Can cause just about anything and destroy every organ/joint in the body • Caused by a bacteria known as “Spirochette” which also cause “Lyme disease” (carried by a tick)

  29. HERPES • HSV 1, HSV 2 (Herpes Symplex Virus) • Not curable • HSV 1 – effects facial features • Not transmittable unless a sore is out (lips) • Valtrex – drug – stops it and sends it back, doesn’t stop the disease

  30. HSV 2 – effects genitals • Genital herpes • Can be treated with antibiotics but is not curable

  31. Hepatitis • B and C, called HBV and HCV are sexually transmitted infections that attack the liver. • Also spread by blood-to-blood contact. • Often unaware of the infection • Symptoms include-fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea.

  32. Both infections may lead to liver cancer or cirrhosis, a condition in which normal liver tissue is replaced by scar tissue. • Diagnosed by a blood test. • Medication may relieve symptoms but there is no cure. • Children are routinely vaccinated for HBV, no vaccine for HVC.

  33. Seeking Treatment • Seek medical attention!! • Refrain from sexual activity and see a doctor. • Make sure all medication prescribed is finished.

  34. If infected… • Notify any sexual partners, so they can seek treatment if they are infected. • If the STI is not curable, the doctor can offer advice about how to live with the disease and how to prevent passing it on to others.

  35. HIV • Human Immunodeficiency Virus - AIDS • There are some drugs that can keep it at HIV • Some people never get AIDS because of drugs nowadays • Disease of lifestyle/choice

  36. Guys can transmit to girls, girls can transmit to guys • No vaccine for guys, guys can usually fight off the virus