Sexually transmitted diseases are infections spread from person to person through sexual contact. • Sexually transmitted infections are communicable diseases that can be easily transmitted from one person to another. • Some STD’s are bacterial and can be cured other STD’s are viral and incurable.
Asymptomatic: individuals showing no symptoms or the symptoms are mild and disappear after the onset of the infection. • Females are more likely to suffer complications from STD’s and the effects are more serious in females than males.
6 most common STD’s • HPV (human papilloma virus), • Chlamydia • Herpes (genital) • Gonorrhea • Trichomoniasis • Syphilis
1. HPV • Human Papilloma Virus: 100 kinds of viruses. More than 30 are transmitted through sexual contact. Close to 6 million in U.S. are infected with HPV each year. Some HPV infections if not diagnosed and treated could result in an abnormal Pap test or could result in cervical cancer. • A vaccine is now available for protection HPV.
2. Chlamydia • Bacterial infection that affects the reproductive organs of both males and females. About 2.8 million Americans contact chlamydia each year, affecting young females three times more often than males. • Less than half of all cases are reported. Chlamydia is still the most common STD among teens.
Chlamydia • Females can develop PID (Pelvic Infammatory Disease) which could lead to infertility in both males and females if untreated. • Females with Chlamydia are up to 5 times more likely to become infected with HIV if exposed to the virus.
3. Herpes (Genital) • In the U.S. 45 million people ages 12 and older have contracted genital herpes. • Many people are asymptomatic and are not aware they have the infection. The first outbreak is the most severe. • Antiviral treatments can lesson the frequency of outbreaks but there is NO CURE for genital herpes.
4. Gonorrhea • Bacterial STD that affects mucous membranes. Gonorrhea is the second most commonly reported infectious disease in the U.S. • More than 700,000 Americans are infected with gonorrhea each year, but only half of these are reported. • Many males are asymptomatic and females show only mild symptoms.
Gonorrhea • Left untreated can cause severe health problems such as infertility. • The bacteria can spread to the bloodstream and cause permanent damage to the body’s joints. • Females can pass the infection to the babies during childbirth and cause blindness. • Silver Nitrate are eyedrops put in the eyes of newborns.
5. Trichomoniasis • Microscopic protozoan that results in infections of the vagina, urethra, and bladder. About 7.4 million new cases occur each year in the U.S. • May not produce many symptoms. Females often experience vaginitis. Females are more likely to contract HIV if exposed to it.
6. Syphilis • Syphilis is an infection caused by a small bacterium called a spirochete which attacks many parts of the body. • Syphilis progresses through 3 Stages. Stage one sore called Chancre appears and heals. Stage two is severe rash, fever, and other symptoms. Stage three is when damage is to the internal organs such as brain, heart, and causes death.
Why do cases go unreported? • Embarressment or Fear to seek medical help. • Lack of Symptoms: Many are Asymptomatic and unaware they have a disease. • Misinformation: If symptoms disappear without treatment, the infected person may think the disease is cured. • Notification policies: State laws require health care providers to report certain but not all STD’s.
Preventing and Treating STD’s • Antibiotics: Chemical agents that destroy disease –causing microorganisms. • The STD’s that antibiotics aid are Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, and Syphilis. (Bacterial STD’s). • HPV and HIV/AIDS, and Herpes are incurable and have no antibiotics to cure these STD’s. • The only method that is 100% successful in preventing STD’s is Abstinence.
Preventing STD’s • Practice Abstinence • Stay away from alcohol and drugs. • Respect yourself • Learn the facts about STD’s and use those facts to make good decisions. • Choose friends who influence you in a positive way. • Go out as a group. • Be aware of your emotions.
HIV/AIDS • Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a virus that attacks the immune system. • Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) a disease in which the immune system is weakened. • 12 million people who have HIV/AIDS are in the 15-24 age group. • Half of all new HIV infections are among young people.
HIV/AIDS (HIV is spread in 3 ways) • 1. Sex: HIV can enter the bloodstream through microscopic openings in tissue. People with STD’s are more vulnerable to HIV infection because STD’s cause changes in the body’s membranes. • By sharing Needles: Contaminated • From mother to baby during birth or breast feeding.
HIV/AIDS affects the immune system • HIV attacks the body’s immune system by destroying lymphocytes. These are specialized white blood cells that support the immune system. • Helper T-cells stimulate B cells to produce antibodies, which help destroy pathogens that enter the body. • When HIV enters the cells, it destroys the cell.
HIV/AIDS How HIV Attacks Cells • 1. HIV attaches to cell surface • 2. Virus core enters cell and goes to nucleus. • 3. Virus makes a copy of its genetic material. • 4. New virus assembles at cell surface • 5. New virus breaks away from host cell. • Symptomatic Stage: Helper T cells fall to 200 to 400 per milliliter of blood. Flu like symptoms, fever, swollen glands, rashes, weight loss, and headaches.
HIV/AIDS • AIDS Stage: Helper T Cells drop to 200 or one or more AIDS opportunistic illnesses are present. • Is it safe to Give Blood? Health care professionals always use sterile needles to draw blood. All donated blood has been tested since 1985. The U.S. supply of blood is one of the safest in the world.
Preventing HIV/AIDS • Practice Abstinence • Do not share needles • Avoid situations where drugs and alcohol use could compromise your decision making. • Use refusal skills when you feel pressured to engage in risky behavior.
Learning Targets • I can explain why STD’s are dangerous to my health. • I can categorize each STD with symptoms and long term effects. • I can identify the percentage increase of STD’s in the last ten years and explain the 5 reasons why. • I can define Abstinence and create Guidelines based on information from the Text.
Learning Targets • I can list 4 ways to avoid high risk behaviors and STD’s. • I can develop and assemble (create) a chart of 6 or more STD’s diagnosis and treatments. • I can determine the best way not to get an STD. • I can explain the HPV (Human Papilloma Virus) vaccine and why it is recommended.
Learning Tartets • I can define HIV and AIDS. • I can identify how HIV/AIDS is transmitted. • I can explain how HIV/AIDS affects the immune system. • I can write down 4 ways to prevent getting HIV/AIDS.