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Sexually Transmitted Infections

Sexually Transmitted Infections

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Sexually Transmitted Infections

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  1. Sexually Transmitted Infections What is an “epidemic?” STI’s are called the “The Silent Epidemic” – Why??? Are STI’s dangerous?? Why?? Asymptomatic means what?? Why do many STI’s go untreated until late stage symptoms appear? According to some studies, 1 in 5 Teens/College kids have an STI. Many base this on “high-risk behavior” What are considered “high-risk behaviors” practiced by young people?? Being sexually active Not using condoms Having more than one partner Having sex w/ someone who had other partners Using alcohol or drugs

  2. STI’s • Females have higher risk of infection than males Why? • 1. large areas of mucous membranes that can be exposed to pathogens during intercourse • 2. during SI, females receive more potentially infected fluids than males • Preventing STI’s • Practice Abstinence • Avoid alcohol and drugs • Respect yourself • Learn about STI’s and know your body – doctor visits • Be carefully in selecting your partners • Avoid sex while under treatment for an STI

  3. How STI’s Are Transmitted • CAUSES: • Bacteria, viruses, parasites • They can be found in different body fluids which include: • Semen • Vaginal fluid • Blood • Breast milk • TRANSMISSION • Any type of sexual activity that has an uninfected person in contact with an infected person • Activity that results in contact with one persons genitals & another person’s skin/mucous membrane & one is already infected with an STI • Direct contact w/ open sores • Mother to her baby before or during birth or breast-feeding

  4. GeneralStatistics – STI’s • In 2006 – nearly 337,000 cases of gonorrhea were reported • Adolescent girls 15 to 19 yrs had the most chlamydia & gonorrhea cases of any age group – 410,000 • 13,500 syphilis cases were reported in 2008, an almost 18 % increase from 2007 • 63% of syphilis cases were among men who have sex w/ men • Syphilis rates in women increased 36% from 2007 to 2008 • Government estimates 56,000 new cases of HIV each year • 1.6 million new cases of genital herpes each year (based on an older study) • CDC estimates 19 million new STI cases each year with almost half occurring in the 15 to 24 age bracket. • Contributing factors for increase – poor economy, poor information on transmission rates, false sense of security, teens being teens……..

  5. Trichomoniasis • Most common – curable – M/F - estimate 7.4 millioneach year • Single-cell parasite – Trichomonas Vaginalis – • Most common site – F = vagina M = urethra • Transmitted – sex. Contact • Men – irritation in penis, mild discharge, burn after urine/ejac. • Female – frothy, yellow-green discharge w. strong odor, irritation, itching, discomfort during SI & urinating – inflammation of vulva • Treatment – prescription drugs – oral or gel

  6. SCABIES • Intensely itchy contagious skin infestation – parasitic mite • Barely visible to human eye (.4mm) • Burrow into outer layer of skin – lay eggs- symptoms begin 2-6 weeks later – not strictly an STI • Burrows appear as silvery/brown wavy lines ½ inch long • Can appear anywhere but mainly webbing of toes/fingers, genitals, anus, on the buttocks • Very itchy rash of inflamed pimple-like lumps(papules/lesions) allergic reaction to mites, their eggs, feces • Widespread itching after warm baths – • Spread by contact – child care facilities – clothing?? • Treatment – clothing wash in120 degree water – people/ lotions • V

  7. PUBIC LICE/CRABS • Small crab-shaped parasites – act like mites • Live on course body hair – yellow-gray in color use claws to grip hair strands • Transmitted: sex – direct contact, clothing,bedding, college • Symptoms: after 5-7 days • Itchy skin – inflammation – visible lice/eggs – spots of blood from lice feeding • Treatment: Easy – hotwash clothes/bedding/towels/etc • Special shampoos, lotions – not necessary to shave

  8. BACTERIA STI’s • CHLAMYDIA – most common STI • Highest Infection Group: 15-20 • Chlamydia outpaces all other STI’s for new cases(bacterial) • Symptoms: • FEMALES: pain when urinating,discharge/bleeding, pelvic pain • MALES: pain when urinating, discharge from penis • TREATMENT: Both partners = antibiotics • If Untreated: • FEMALES: infertilty, PID ectopic preg • MALES: injure reproductive organs, swollen-tender testes • INFANTS of INFECTED MOTHERS; illness, blindness

  9. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease • Inflammation of upper reprod. Tract caused by migration of bacterial infection in vagina • Serious complication • SYMPTOMS: • Pain in pelvic/abdominal region, discharge, long & painful period, spotting, fever, painful urination, nausea • TREATMENT: • Antibiotics, cures but does NOT repair damage done. Sometimes surgery may be needed • If UNTREATED: • Scars FTubes or uterus-leads to Ect. Preg/infertility- chronic Pelvic Pain

  10. GONORRHEA • Infects membranes – similar to Chlamydia • SYMPTOMS: • FEMALES: Often no obvious symptoms, pain when urinating, discharge/bleeding, ab/pelvic pain • MALES: Pain when urinating, discharge • TREATMENT: • Partners take antibiotics – is becoming more difficult to treat due to resistant strains • IF UNTREATED: • FEMALES: PID, Ect. Preg, Infertility • MALES: Scarring of urethra = , swelling of testes • NEWBORNS: blindness, joint infection, life-threatening blood infections

  11. SYPHILIS • Bacteria that causes ulcers/chancres • Spread through the blood, damages nervous system & body organs, passed to infant during birth • SYMPTOMS: • PHASE 1- (10-90 days after infect.)chancre where bac. entered body • PHASE 2 – (2-8 weeks after infect.)fever, spotty rash, swollen glands, joint pain, muscle aches, hair loss • PHASE 3- (2 + years after infect.) heart/nervous sys damage, blindness, loss of cognitive abilities, possible death • TREATMENT: Antibiotics – early!!! • If UNTREATED: mental/physical disabilities, premature death • INFANTS:premature birth, severe mental disabilities, deafness, death

  12. VIRAL STI’S • HUMAN PAPILLOMA VIRUS (HPV) • Group of viruses that can cause warts in M/F and Cer. Cancer in females • SYMPTOMS: • FEMALES: Often none but, genital/anal warts(pink/reddish),abnormal PAP smear • MALES: genital & anal warts • TREATMENT: No cure, warts surgically removed, freeze, meds but often return • UNTREATED: FEMALES – higher risk of C Cancer • MALES – Genital cancers

  13. GENITAL HERPES • Herpes Simplex Virus(HSV) 2 types HSV1 & HSV 2 • SYMPTOMS: • HSV 1 – cold sores, blisters around mouth, genitals • HSV 2 - mild to no symptoms • Red bumps, recurrent sores on/around genitals, fever with first infection, swollen lymph nodes • TREATMENT: • No cure , antiviral meds to shorten outbreaks • UNTREATED: Infected for life • INFANTS: infections of liver, brain, skin, eyes, mouth, disabilities, death

  14. HEPATITIS • Inflammation of the liver – different viruses cause B & C • Both can be transmitted sexually-both life-threatening, + • SYMPTOMS: Jaundice • Tired, muscle aches, fever, loss of appetite, darkening of urine • TREATMENT: No cure – Meds may help stop the spread, severe liver damage possible (replace) Vaccine is available to prevent B • UNTREATED: Liver damage, failure, cancer, early death

  15. HUMAN IMMUNO-DEFICIENCY VIRUS • Infects cells of the immune sys. and causes AIDS making people susceptible to infection/disease –opportunistic • Sex, blood, needles, breast milk • Incubation – about 6 months to 1 year • PHASE 1 – (initial exposure to 10 years or more) fatigue, wt. loss, fever, diarrhea, swollen glands, Kaposi Sarcoma, pneumonia, fungal infections, herpes outbreaks • PHASE 2 – 1 + forgetfulness, cognitive issues, • PHASE 3 – 1 & 2 + weakened immune system, severe infections, severe wt. loss, • TREATMENT: No cure use of antiviral drugs & protease inhibitors (expensive 7 can make ill) • UNTREATED many infections & illnesses, dementia, death

  16. BEING RESPONSIBLE ABOUT STIs • Be careful in your choices • Seek MX right away • Complete the full course of meds • Have follow-up tests done • Avoid all sexual activity while being treated • Notify all sexual partners • Wait to have sex