Sexually Transmitted Infections Unit 4 – Health Education
Sexually Transmitted Infections • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs), are among the most common infections in the United States today. • More than 20 STIs have now been identified • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimate they affect more than 19 million men and women in this country each year.
STI-Most Common Infections in US • 87% of all cases of infectious diseases in US are sexually transmitted diseases • Sharpest increases in HPV (genital warts- not curable) and trichomoniasis (protozoan) • Top 5 STDs
STI’s • Bacteria • Virus • Fungus • Small animals (protozoans, lice)
General Information about STIs • Nearly half of all STIs occur in young people 15 to 24 years old. • Most of the time, STIs cause no symptoms, particularly in women. • Even when an STI causes no symptoms, however, a person who is infected may be able to pass the disease on to a sex partner. • Health problems caused by STIs tend to be more severe and more frequent for women than for men.
Cont. • Some STIs can spread into the womb (uterus) and fallopian tubes to cause pelvic inflammatory disease, which in turn is a major cause of both infertility and tubal (ectopic) pregnancy. • STIs in women also may be associated with cervical cancer. One STI, human papillomavirus infection, may cause genital warts and may lead to cervical and other genital cancers. • STIs can be passed from a mother to her baby before, during, or immediately after birth. Some of these infections of the newborn can be cured easily, but others may cause life-long disabilities or death. Examples of these STIs are gonorrhea, chlamydia, herpes simplex, and HIV.
Some Factors that Increase the Spread of STDs • Asymptomatic • Fear of painful treatment or public disclosure • Failure to notify sexual contacts • High Risk behavior: anal intercourse, hooking up • Reduced use of condoms as birth control method • No vaccines • Evolution: New strains resistant to treatments • Multiple sex partners – HUBS • Lack of knowledge or concern • “Why do smart people do dumb things?”
Bacterial STDs • Chlamydia • Gonorrhea • Syphilis • Chancroid • Vaginosis
Chlamydia cont. • Transmission • You can get chlamydia during oral or vaginal sexual contact with an infected partner. • Symptoms • About 70 percent of chlamydial infections have no symptoms, • "silent" disease • Symptoms usually appear within 1 to 3 weeks after you are infected. • Abnormal discharge (mucus or pus) from the vagina or penis or experience pain while urinating. These early symptoms may be very mild.
Chlamydia • Chlamydia is a curable sexually transmitted infection (STI) • Chlamydia is one of the most widespread bacterial STIs in the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) estimates 2.8 million people are infected each year.
Tops the list of the most commonly reported infections in the U.S. It infects about 4 million people annually in the U.S. If left untreated, can cause blindness. If detected early, it is easily treatable with antibiotics. Chlamydia-A disease that often presents no symptoms.
Male Can suffer damage to the prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and the bulb urethral gland. Arthritis Damage to the blood vessels and heart. Female Can cause harm to cervix or fallopian tubes which can lead to sterility. Damage to the inner pelvic structure, leading to pelvic inflammatory disease. Chlamydia (Secondary Damages)
Chlamydia • Treatment • If you are infected, your health care provider will probably give you a prescription for an antibiotic such as azithromycin (taken for one day) or doxycycline (taken for 7 days). • Penicillin, which health care providers often use to treat some other STIs, won't cure chlamydia. • Take all your medicine, even after symptoms disappear, for the amount of time prescribed • Go to your health care provider again if your symptoms do not disappear within 1 to 2 weeks after finishing all your medicine • Not have sex until your treatment is completed and successful • Tell your sex partners that you have chlamydia so they can be tested and treated, if necessary
GONORRHEA • One of the most common STI’s in the U.S. • Primarily infects: lining of uterus, genital tract, rectum. • It may be spread to the eyes or other body regions via the hands or other body fluids.
Male symptoms White/milky discharge from penis. Painful, burning urination. Fever Female Symptoms Discharge from vagina. Burning sensation during urination. Fever A woman can be unaware that she has been infected and that she is infecting her sexual partners. Gonorrhea
Syphilis • 40,000/year • PRIMARY SPHYHILIS • Chancre 3 weeks, red bump • Bump breaks, depression heals, no pain • SECONDARY SYPHILIS • Rash on body, feet and palms, painless • TERTIARY SYPHILIS • 3-40 years • Heart failure, liver damage, blindness • Ruptured blood vessels
Syphilis • Typically is transferred through sexual contact, but may enter the body through breaks in the skin, through deep kissing or other transmission of body fluids. • Syphilis is called the “great imitator” because its symptoms resemble those of several other infections. • If left untreated, it will progress through distinct stages. • Some people experience no symptoms at all!
Primary Syphilis (1st stage) • Often characterized by the development of a chancre, a sore at the site of initial infection. • Is dime sized and painless, but oozes with bacteria, ready to infect an unsuspecting partner. • Appears 3-4 weeks after contact.
Secondary Syphilis • Months to years after the chancre disappears, secondary symptoms may appear including: • -Rash or white patches on the skin or on the mucus membranes of the mouth, throat , or genitals. • -Hair loss • -Lymph nodes enlarge • -Slight fever or headache • -Sores around the mouth or genitals
Latent Syphilis • Begins to invade body organs and symptoms of infectious lesions may reappear periodically for 2-4 years after the secondary period. • Heart damage • Central nervous system damage • Blindness • Paralysis • Insanity
Viral STDs • Herpes • Genital Warts (Human papillomavirus) • Hepatitis • Acquired Immune-Deficiency Syndrome
Herpes • Mouth, penis, vagina, anus, perineum • HSV (herpes simplex virus) • Oral and genital herpes • Blisters, teeming with viruses, spreads • Painful & flu-like symptoms • Relapses, resides in nervous system • Stress, sunburn, anxiety.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) • Genital warts. 5.5 million/year • Vagina, anus, penis, mouth, perineum, labia • 100 types of viruses cause genital warts • Warts in 3 weeks, cauliflower appearance • Block urethra • Cervix, vagina, penis and anus cancer • Treatment: None. Cryotherapy. 30% recur
Types Full-blown genital warts – noticeable as tiny bumps or growths. Flat warts- not usually visible to the naked eye Risks/Treatments Can grow and generate unsightly flaps of irregular flesh on the external genitalia. Usually disappear on their own. Treated with topical medications or removed by freezing with liquid nitrogen. Large warts may require surgical removal. HPV - Genital Warts
Hepatitis • Three types of viruses: • A: oral contact with contaminated food/water/sex fluids/analingus. Can recover • B: blood, semen, saliva, vaginal secretions and urine. No symptoms. Vaccination • C: blood. Sharing needles, anal intercourse. No vaccine • Destroy liver, until then fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, jaundice, dark uriine
HERPES Genital Herpes • Infection caused by the herpes simplex virus (HSV). • Can infect any area of the body, producing lesions (sores) in and around the vaginal area, penis, anal opening, buttocks, or thighs. • HSV remains in nerve cells for life, it can flare up or cause symptoms when the body’s immune system is weakened.
HERPES (phases) Prodromal Phase • Characterized by burning sensation and redness at the size of infection Second Phase • A blister filled with clear fluid containing the virus forms. If you break the blister, you may spread this fluid with your fingers, lipstick, lip balm, etc., you can also auto inoculate other body parts. • If spread to the eyes it can cause blindness
HERPES (prevention) • NO CURE for herpes at present time, certain drugs can reduce symptoms. • Avoid any form of kissing if you notice a sore or blister on your partner’s mouth. • Wash your hand immediately with soap or water after any forms of sexual contact. • If you have questionable sores or lesions, seek medical help immediately.
Fungal & Small Animal STDs • Fungus: Candidiasis • Small Animals • Trichomoniasis • Pubic Lice • Scabies (mite)
PUBIC LICE (a.k.a. “Crabs”) • Small parasites that are usually transmitted during sexual contact. • More irritating STI, moves easily from partner to partner during sex. • They have an affinity for pubic hair, attaching themselves to the base of these hairs, where they deposit their eggs. • One to two weeks later, the eggs develop into mature cells that migrate to other body parts, thus perpetuating the cycle.
Pubic Lice Other forms of transmission: • Can catch pubic lice from lying on sheets that an infected person has slept on. • Sleeping in hotels and dormitory rooms where sheets are not washed regularly will put you at risk. • Also sitting on toilet seats where the larvae have been dropped and lie and wait for a new carrier will put you at risk. Treatment: -washing clothing, furniture, linens that may hold the eggs. -takes 2-3 weeks to kill al larval forms.