sexually transmitted infections n.
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  2. DEFINITION: are infections that are transmitted by direct contact with the genital organs.

  3. Until the 1980’s syphilis and gonorrhoea were the best known and most serious of the STI’s. • Gonorrhoea been around since ancient times • Syphilis since about 1493 – from America’s via Captain Columbus. • HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS: “HIV” is now considered the most dangerous STI

  4. The number of STI’s in developed countries were declining as people became more educated about safe-sex practices BUT • There has been a gradual increase of STI’s in recent years. • - In USA STI’s are the most prevalent communicable diseases after the common cold. • No vaccine available. • Cannot buildup resistance or immunity to STI’s.


  6. GONORRHOEA • “The clap” • Mainly affects the mucus membranes of the excretory and reproductive systems, the rectum and occasionally the eyes. • Caused by the bacterium: “Neisseria gonorrhoea” • Transmitted: during sexual intercourse • Discharge of pus is the source of transmission

  7. GONORRHOEA • Affects: both males and females • Symptoms: 2 – 10 days after infection Females might not have symptoms • Males: bacterium enters the urethra Burning sensation in penis Extreme pain on urination • Lack of treatment can lead to: spread of infection to other organs Cause sterility Arthritis Heart problems

  8. Females: bacterium enters the vagina and spreads to urethra and cervix Usually no pain Pus discharge usually thought of as normal vaginal discharge • Lack of treatment can lead to: spread of infection to other organs Spread to oviducts Spread to abdominal membranes Cause sterility • .

  9. Treatment: Antibiotics • Some strains of the disease are resistant to some antibiotics • Development of a vaccine is the goal of medical authorities


  11. SYPHILIS • “The Pox” • Named after a shepherd who had the disease. • Caused by the spiral shaped bacterium: “Treponema pallidum” • Transmitted: during sexual contact

  12. Affects: both males and females in the same ways • Symptoms: 10 days to 10 weeks after infection • 3 stages of disease: • Primary – bacterium enters the body through a break in the skin. Small sores on the sex organs – heals in 3-8 weeks

  13. Secondary: usually starts a few weeks after primary stage Can be delayed up to 12 months Skin rashs, sore or ulcerated mouths, disorders of the bones • This stage lasts for up to 2 years after infection

  14. Tertiary: latent period where there are no symptoms for many years. • Lack of treatment can lead to: spread of infection to other organs, nervous system, • Insanity, physical incapacity, can transfer across the placenta and infect the foetus.

  15. SYPHILIS • Treatment: Antibiotics Some strains of the disease are resistant to some antibiotics • Pregnant women are tested for STI’s. • Pregnant women are given antibiotics if they have syphilis – this will provide treatment to the foetus as well as the woman.

  16. Hepatitis B • Highly infectious viral disease . • Spread through the transmission of body fluid. - usually transmitted in infected blood but also in other body fluids. • HEPATITIS: inflammation of the liver. • Over 90% of persons infected with HIV also have Hepatitis B.

  17. Hepatitis B • Symptoms: • Flu-like symptoms including: Fatigue, fever, headache, nausea, vomiting and muscle aches, skin may be yellow (jaundice). Liver failure can occur – Liver transplant would be necessary.

  18. Hepatitis B • Treatment: • No cure is available for hepatitis B. - can be given medication to manage the disease • Prophylaxis: series of 3 injections

  19. LESSON 2

  20. HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS • - HIV “The Human Immunodeficiency virus causes progressive damage to the body’s immune system.”

  21. ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME • - AIDS “The destruction of the immune system which leaves a person susceptible to infection by other microorganisms and to some forms of cancer.” • AIDS is a fatal disease – NO CURE.

  22. hiv • HIV is a retro virus • contains an RNA core • HIV infects white blood cells – T-lymphocytes and uses them to produce more of the virus. • HIV virus attaches itself to a cell with a surface molecule called a cluster designation 4 (CD4). • This is how the HIV virus fuses with a human cell.

  23. The process of infection destroys the T-lymphocytes until there are not enough of them left in the body to protect it from infection.

  24. STAGES OF INFECTION • Persons infected with HIV are classified into categories depending on the stage of the disease and their symptoms. • Category A • Category B • Category C

  25. CATEGORY A - hiv • Newly infected individuals develop HIV within 2 weeks of exposure to the virus. • Called: seroconversion • Symptoms similar to glandular fever: Severe lack of energy Fevers Headache Continual dry cough Swollen lymph nodes Painful muscles and joints Symptoms finish after 3 – 14 days

  26. CATEGORY A - hiv Asymptomatic stage – for a period of up to 10 years there are no symptoms However the person is highly infectious.

  27. CATEGORY B - hiv • Several months to several years after infection the person will progress to category B. • T-lymphocyte count drops considerably • Development of illness called: Persistent generalised lymphadenopathy (AIDS related complex).

  28. CATEGORY B - hiv • Symptoms: • Swelling in the neck, armpits, groin • Diarrhoea • Fatigue • Weight loss over 5 kg for no apparent reason • Continual dry cough • Unexplained bleeding • Shortness of breath • Nervous system impairment • Inability to think clearly • Loss of memory/judgement

  29. CATEGORY C - HIV • Most people in this category have developed AIDS. • Have various serious conditions including: • Pneumonia • Cancers • Brain disorders • Some people infected with HIV do not progress to this stage

  30. SPREAD OF HIV • has spread rapidly around the world • Virus does not survive long outside of the human body. • Infected body fluids must be passed directly into a person’s bloodstream

  31. SPREAD OF HIV • Body fluids that are able to carry enough HIV to be infectious: • Blood • Seminal fluid • Vaginal and cervical fluids • Breast milk • Even though HIV is found in other body fluids it is not in large enough quantities to be infectious

  32. HIV can be spread by: • Unprotected sexual intercourse • Sharing of needles • From infected mother to embryo/child • Breastfeeding • Unscreened blood transfusions

  33. PREVENTATIVE MEASURES • Don’t have sexual intercourse • Don’t inject drugs • Only have protected sex • No sharing any objects that have been contaminated by human blood • Do not let cuts or sores come into contact with human blood

  34. DIAGNOSIS OF HIV • Blood test to check for HIV antibodies 2 – 6 weeks after suspected infection. • Follow-up test is recommended 10 – 12 weeks after first test if it is negative to be sure that no antibodies have developed. • VIRAL LOAD • Blood test to that gives an indication of the activity of the HIV virus.

  35. TREATMENT • NO cure for HIV • Many investigations and drug trials are being carried out around the world for a cure. • A mixture (cocktail) of drugs are prescribed to HIV patients to inhibit the reproductive cycle of the virus. • Vaccines are being trialled

  36. AIDS • First AIDS case in Australia was 1982 • By 2000: 9754 cases – 5751 had died.

  37. CHLAMYDIA • Previously known as “non-specific urethritis” (NSU) • Organism: Chlamydia trachomatis • bacterium • Treatment with antibiotics • Infects both men and women

  38. CHLAMYDIA • Symptoms only show in men: • Yellow, pus like discharge • Burning sensation on urination • Long term damage in men: • Inflammation of epididymis – epididymitis • Sterility

  39. CHLAMYDIA • Long term damage in women: • Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) • Infertility • Ectopic pregnancies can occur • Diagnosis of Chlamydia in women is confirmed by cervical swab. • 70% chance that disease will be passed on to foetus during birth

  40. GENITAL HERPES • Increasingly common • Herpes simplex type 1 – produces cold sores on the lip • Herpes simplex type 2 – results in blisters on genitals • Disease is not curable

  41. Symptoms: • Painful blisters on penis/labia and vagina • Virus can reinfect at any time and the blisters will recur • Can cause serious malformations and life-threatening diseases in children bornto infected mothers. • - children get delivered by caesarean section

  42. TREATMENT • Medication to reduce the pain • Sexual abstinence during blister eruption • Anti-viral drugs • Vaccine available for women – does not work for men

  43. GENITAL WARTS • Caused by a virus: human papillomavirus • Associated with cervical cancer – detected by a PAP smear • Usually found: Vagina, Labia, Cervix, Penis • Also found: Anus & Throat • A newborn child can become infected during passage through birth canal

  44. PUBIC LICE AND SCABIES • Both cause intense itching in the genital area • Louse (insect) – Phthirus pubis • Scabies (mite) – Sarcoptes scabei • Intense scratching due to allergic reaction to the lice or their faeces • Transmission through either sexual contact or sharing same bed

  45. TRICHOMONIASIS • Infection caused by a protozoan – Trichomonas vaginalis • Causes inflammation of the mucus membranes of the vagina in women and the urethra in men. • Symptoms in women: • Vaginal discharge and severe vaginal itch • No symptoms in men

  46. CONTROL OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS • What can be done to decrease the incidence of sexually transmitted infections? • Effective health education • Safe sex practises • Identifying high risk groups • Sexual health clinics • Tracing of sexual contacts