Transmission/Symptoms Transmission • Sexual skin to skin contact. • By sharing clothes,towels, soap, bedding, or sleeping bags. • It can live off the body for 24 to 48 hours. Symptoms • Same for males and females. • You may have itchiness and redness around your genitals. Itching is often worse at night.
Trichomoniasis • Protozoa • Transmission – Sexual intercourse • Incubation Period – 1to 3 weeks • Symptoms – both sexes have burning during urination and females may have profuse (foul smelling) discharge • However many people have no symptoms at all.
Bacterial Vaginosis • Aerobic & Anaerobic bacteria/abnormal overgrowth. • Most often associated with sexual activity. • Symptoms – Females have (fishy odoured) discharge, infection rarely occur in men. • PID and preterm labour and delivery.
Non-Gonococcal Urethritis/NGUMucopurulent Cervicitis/MPC • Variety of bacteria. • Transmission is oral, anal, or vaginal intercourse • Incubation period of 1-5 weeks. • Symptoms – abdominal pain, clear, white, pussy discharge. • 80% of women are asymptomatic.
Causative Agent / Statistics • Bacterial infection • Incubation period 2 - 6 weeks • Vaginal or anal sex with infected person • In 1998, 5252 reported cases- Alberta • In 2004, 8339 reported cases • 70% below the age of 24
Symptoms and Complications Abdominal pain or pain during urination Abnormal urethral or vaginal discharge 50% of men and 70% of women can be asymptomatic Complications in the male: infertility, urinary tract complications and epididymitis Complications in the female: infertility, tubal pregnancy and PID A new born may be infected with pneumonia or eye infections For both sexes if it spreads to the blood may cause severe illness and responsible for some forms of arthritis
The info you need to know • Bacterial infection • Incubation of 1-14 days • Through oral, vaginal or anal intercourse • In Alberta in 1998, 529 cases • In Alberta in 2004, 1376 cases • 50% below age of 24
Do you have it? • Men receive burning during urination, purulent discharge, 50% asymptomatic • Women experience same symptoms as men as well as abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding 50% asymptomatic • Infection if spread to eyes or rectum • The same complications occur as Chlamydia
STATS • 1998, 6 reported cases • 1999, 2 reported cases • 2004, 74 reported cases • 42%, 15 – 29 years old • Incubation period 10-90 days average is 21 days • Receive through direct contact or sores / lesions or rash through oral, vaginal or anal intercourse • Can be transferred from mother to baby during pregnancy or at birth. Congenital syphilis can cause loss of hearing, mental retardation and seizures
Primary syphilis: one or more painless sores (chancre) appear on genitals or mouth, lasting one to five weeks Chancres may not be noticed on rectum, vagina and cervix. Highly contagious at this time.
Secondary symptoms 4-10 weeks Non-itchy rash on trunks, soles or palms Flu like symptoms Patchy hair loss Highly contagious at this stage Latent stage 10 weeks to thirty years No noticeable symptom although secondary characteristics may reoccur sporadically May remain static for years May be infectious at this stage but not as virulent as in previous stages Secondary and Latent Stages
Tertiary syphilis can be destructive to the body with long term effects including heart disease, brain damage, paralysis, blindness Death. May not occur for 10 to 30 years after infection Not contagious at this stage.
Symptoms of genital warts • Flesh colored warts in genital and anal areas • Usually painless, occasional itching at all sites and bleeding may occur at anal sites • In men HPV may occur under the foreskin or in the urethra and may not be visible • In women the warts may occur in the vagina at on the cervix and not be visible • Some people are asymptomatic with no visible warts but the virus remains on the skin and can be transferred during skin to skin contact.
What’s the big deal about a wart? • Causative organism – HPV • Transferred via anal, oral or vaginal sex • Skin to skin contact so a condom can not guarantee protection • In some cases the virus can be transferred to a newborn during birth • Incubation period can be 1 – 10 months
Complications • If left untreated warts spread extensively throughout the genital and anal areas • Some people with HPV experience emotional impacts as no treatment completely eradicates the virus • Cancers of the cervix, vulva, penis and anus can develop • High risk types of the virus combined with first sexual intercourse at early age(under 17) multiple partners, smoking and co infection with another STD places young women at high risk for cancer
Cervix is infected with HPV. It is estimated that one in three sexually active teens is HPV carrier.
Simplex 2 is Genital herpes One in five Canadians over the age of 12 is infected with this variety Both types can cause infection orally and genitally Herpes Simplex is of two varieties: 1 and 2 Simplex 1 is cold sore and chicken pox variety
Initial outbreak starts with itchiness and pain at site if virus entry Cluster of small blisters develop and break open to form painful sores lasting an average of 7 to 21 days. Swollen glands in groin area Painful urination Urethral or vaginal discharge Flu like symptoms Incubation period is 2 to 21 days
Recurrent Outbreaks • Tingling, itching, burning or pain radiating to the legs called prodrome • Usually less severe than initial outbreak, lasting 4 to 10 days • Stress, illness, diet, fever, sun exposure, menses, pregnancy or vigorous sex may trigger recurrence • Frequency varies from monthly to never but the person remains infectious
Hepatitis B • Contact with blood, semen, or vaginal secretions but any body fluid is contagious • From a infected mother to unborn fetus or through breast milk postnatal • Reuse of needles: IV drug use, tattooing, piercing • Household contact with an acute or chronic carrier
Facts about Hep B • Incubation period is 2 to 5 months average is 3 months • Symptoms of acute infection include fatigue, lack of appetite, skin rashes, nausea • Some may develop jaundice and arthritis • Many people will be asymptomatic but are still infectious. Most people will recover and have no complications but 10% will be chronic carriers who develop cirrhosis / cancer of the liver • Approximately 3% will die from a hepB infection • Receive immunization which is effective protection