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Sexually Transmitted Infections

Sexually Transmitted Infections

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Sexually Transmitted Infections

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  1. Sexually Transmitted Infections

  2. STI’s or STD’s • Infections that are spread from person to person through sexual contact • There are more than 25 known STI’s, many of which are difficult to track bc ppl who have them do not exhibit symptoms • Other cases are not reported bc ppl do not seek treatment due to shame, fear, or ignorance

  3. Widespread among teens • Approx 15 million ppl contract 1 or more STI’s every year, ¼ of these new cases are in teens • Currently > 65 million have incurable STI • Y? many STI’s have no symptoms or don’t ever show up, others have a lengthy delay b/t infection and symptoms

  4. Sexually Active Teens at a higher risk bc • Engaging in Sexual acts w/o protection • Using alcohol or other drugs bc they cause inhibitions to lower • Being sexually active with more than one person at a time or over time • Choosing high-risk partners who have a history of being sexually active

  5. More reasons… • Choosing a high-risk partner who have a history of Intravenous Drug Use • Choosing a partner who seems to be low risk but really isn't

  6. Most common STI’s in US • Human Papillomavirus, HPV – a virus that causes genital warts and warts on other parts of the body • Believed to be the most commonly contracted of all the STI’s • Many cases go unreported & unnoticed, approx 5.5 million ppl contract ea. Year • Approx 20 million already have it

  7. HPV cont’d • Most easily recognized symptom is genital warts (venereal warts) are soft, moist, pink or red swellings that appear on the genitals • Grow in clusters spread into large masses • Over 100 types of HPV, 30 of which are transmitted thru oral, anal, & vaginal sexual contact • Certain types linked to cervical cancer, including some which are associated with cancers of the vulva, penis and anus

  8. HPV found in • Females – if present genital warts are found on the vulva, in the vagina, on the cervix, or around the anus • Males – if present genital warts are found on the penis, scrotum, groin, thigh or around the anus • Genital warts found only rarely in the mouth or throat

  9. HPV • Commonly diagnosed by an exam of genital warts • May disappear by themselves, or removed by laser, being frozen, burned or cut off • Doesn’t eliminate the virus, however • Will recur AND the virus remains in the body for life

  10. Chlamydia • An STI that is caused by the bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis • Most commonly reported bacterial STI in US, & most commonly reported infectious disease • Approx 2 million curr. infected, 3 million become infected ea. year • 40 % of reported cases ppl 15 -19 yrs old

  11. MORE Chlamydia • Despite being easily cured, one of the most dangerous, bc it easily goes undiagnosed • 75% of women, n 50% of male with it have NO symptoms, but can spread it • If symptoms do occur, usually appear within 1-3 weeks of sexual contact with an infected person

  12. Diagnosis of Chlamydia • Made by testing a specimen collected from infected site for bacteria • More recent test involves checking a urine sample for bacteria • If diagnosed with Chlamydia, antibiotics can easily CURE the infection

  13. Chlamydia symptoms • Females – early stages small % develop an abnormal vaginal discharge or a burning sensation when urinating • Males – may have a discharge from the penis and a burning sensation when urinating • 40 % of females with untreated Chlamydia will develop Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

  14. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease • PID – a painful infection of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and/or ovaries • Permanent damage to these structures can result, along with severe pelvic pain, infertility, and increased likelihood of ectopic pregnancy • 3-5 times as likely to be infected with HIV if exposed to it, if you have an active Chlamydia infection

  15. Gonorrhea • An STI caused by bacterium Neisseria Gonorrhoeae, a bacteria that live in warm, moist areas of the body. • 650,000 reported new cases each year, it is an extremely common infectious disease

  16. Gonorrhea • Teens & young adults have the highest incidences of gonorrhea • Females ages 15-19 highest reported rate • Males ages 20-24 highest reported rate • Thrives in mucous membranes of the cervix, uterus & fallopian tubes in females, the urethra in females & males; & also in the mouth, throat, and anus in females and males

  17. Gonorrhea symptoms • Most males will show some signs when infected • Usually appear 2- 5 days after infection, but can also take up to 30 days • Burning sensation when urinating, yellowish-white discharge from penis, sometimes painful or swollen testicles

  18. Gonorrhea symptoms • Females it can go unnoticed bc rarely show symptoms • Early symptoms go unnoticed bc they are mild and mistaken for something else • Burning sensation when urinating, yellow vaginal discharge that may be tinged with blood

  19. Gonorrhea symptoms • Rectal infection – anal discharge, itching, soreness, and bleeding, as well as painful bowel movements – MALE & FEMALE • Throat infections causes few symptoms • If untreated can lead to PID in females, and epididymitis in males – inflammation of the testes – can cause sterility • Treated with antibiotics

  20. Herpes • 2 types – simplex type 1 & simplex type 2 • HSV-1 causes cold sores – blisters on the mouth and lips of infected ppl. • HSV-2 causes genital herpes

  21. HSV-1 • Very common n the US, but Not considered a STI • Virus can e spread thru saliva to another person when lesions are present • HSV-1 infection can occur on the genitals following oral-genital contact with a person who has a cold sore

  22. HSV-2 • 45 million ppl. in US curr. infected - 1 million new cases each year • 1 in 4 females and 1 in 5 males have the virus • The # of teens and young adults with HSV-2 is increasing dramatically • Spread from open sores during sexual contact, but it also can be released when lesions are not present

  23. HSV-2 • Person with frequently has no symptoms • If they do occur, it is usually within two weeks of exposure to the virus and consists of an outbreak of blisters on or around the genitals or rectum • Some may get a fever or swollen glands • After blisters break, painful lesions remain and may take 2-4 weeks to heal

  24. HSV-2 • Within a few weeks another outbreak may occur, usually less severe than the 1st • May have 4-5 episodes in the first year, and the fewer as the years go by • Once you contract HSV-2, you have it for the remainder of your life • Are antiviral medications to control the duration and severity of episodes, but not rid the body of the virus

  25. HSV-1 & HSV-2 • Anyone who has an active episode of either virus should avoid touching the lesion; careful personal hygiene, including hand-washing, does help in preventing the spread of herpes to other ppl and other areas of one’s body

  26. Hepatitis B • HBV is a viral STI that attacks the liver and can cause extreme illness and death • Transmitted when blood or other body fluids from an infected person enter the body of another • Spread through sexual activity as well, drug users who share needles from an infected person • Tattoo's or body piercings‘ where instruments are not sterilized or inks are used over

  27. Hepatitis B symptoms • Jaundice, fatigue, abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, joint pain & loss of appetite • Can be treated with drugs-effective in 40% of individuals • Vaccine available since 1982, given to children from birth to 18

  28. Hepatitis C • Virus, blood-borne infection • Can lead to chronic liver disease, liver cancer, & liver failure • Asymptomatic – progresses slowly • Transmitted thru sexual contact and any direct contact with contaminated blood • NO CURE for hepatitis C

  29. Syphilis • STI caused by the bacterium Treponema Pallidum, and it progresses in stages • Spread by direct contact with a chancre, a painless sore that appears early, or with the infectious rash that appears later • Transmitted thru sexual activity

  30. Stages of Syphilis • Untreated syphilis progresses thru 3 stages • Primary stage - 10-90 days after infection – a small, firm, round sore called a chancre appears where bacterium entered the body • Sore is painless & lasts 3-6 weeks can disappear without treatment

  31. Stages of Syphilis • Secondary stage – an infectious rash of rough, red or reddish-brown spots appears on the palms of the hands and soles of the feet • Flulike symptoms, hair loss, & weight loss can occur. • Rash can disappear without treatment

  32. Stages of Syphilis • Late Stage – organism last in the body, damaging organs including brain, nerves, eyes, heart, blood vessels, liver, bones, & joints • Symptoms include loss of muscle coordination, paralysis, blindness, and dementia. • Can lead to death

  33. Diagnosis of Syphilis • Blood test or laboratory exam of material from primary chancre or secondary rash • Easily cured with antibiotics – but once damage to internal organs occurs, there is no way to repair the damage

  34. Vaginitis • Many types of vaginitis, inflammation of the vagina caused by various organisms • Only 2 however are transmitted sexually, both infections are treated with the prescription drug metronidazole • Trichomonasis and Bacterial Vaginosis

  35. Trichomonasis • An STI caused by the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis, affects both males and females • Infected males – rarely have symptoms – irritation inside the penis, mild discharge, or slight burning after urinating or ejaculation

  36. Trichomonasis • Infected females – 5-28 days after exposure symptoms appear – foamy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor, can also cause genital irritation & itching, and discomfort during intercourse & urination

  37. Bacterial Vaginosis - BV • An STI caused by an imbalance of bacteria normally found in the vagina – affects only females • Little is known about the cause, but having intercourse with a new partner and douching may be contributing factors

  38. Bacterial Vaginosis - BV • Symptoms, when present include white or gray vagina discharge with a strong odor as well as itching and burning around the vagina • BV increases risk of gonorrhea may lead to PID

  39. Pubic Lice • Also known as “crabs” tiny parasitic insects that infest in the genital area of humans. • Spread thru sexual contact, and in rare circumstances from infested bed linens, towels, and clothing since lice can live for a short time away from their host

  40. Symptoms of Pubic Lice • Main – intense itching • Usually live in pubic hair but can also live in the coarse hair of legs, armpits, mustaches, beards, eyebrows, and eyelashes • Lice that infect a persons head are NOT pubic lice

  41. Treatment of Pubic Lice • Medicated shampoos OTC and Dr.’s Prescription • Shampoos are harsh and should not be used on eyebrows or eyelashes – have a special ointment that will not damage the eyes by prescription only

  42. Scabies • An STI infestation of the skin with microscopic mites called Sarcoptes Scabiei • Spread thru sharing of infested bedding & clothing and thru prolonged skin-2-skin contact • CAN NOT be transmitted by shaking someone’s hand

  43. Symptoms of Scabies • Appear 4-6 weeks after contact, a pimplelike rash, particularly b/t fingers and in skin folds on the body • Also on the penis, breast, and shoulder blades • Rash causes severe itching, sores can be infected from scratching • Fewer than 10 mites are usually present on an infected person, making diagnosis difficult

  44. Treatment of Scabies • Special lotions are available and everyone living in the same household as the infected person should get treatment as well at the same time

  45. General Treatment of STI’s • Follow Dr.’s orders for treatment and finish all medication prescribed. Never stop taking med’s bc symptoms went away • Notify everyone with whom he or she has had sexual contact • Remember that abstinence only 100% effective