Sexually Transmitted Infections What’s the difference between Bacterial vs. Viral
Bacterial - Chlamydia • The most common bacterial STD in the US. Over 4 million cases. • Can permanently damage reproductive organs. • Leading cause of infertility. • Usually easy to treat. • Most people have no symptoms. • Women more likely to get than men.
Bacterial - Chlamydia SYMPTOMS in women: • Symptoms show up 7-28 days after having sex • Discharge and irritation during urination UP TO 90% OF WOMEN SHOW NO SYMPTOMS (ASYMPTOMATIC) AND HAVE NO IDEA THEY HAVE THIS DISEASE!!!
Bacterial - Chlamydia Symptoms in males • Discharge of pus from head of the penis • Burning during urination. • UP TO 10% OF MENSHOW NO SYMPTOMS!!!
Bacterial - Gonorrhea Symptoms in Women: • Thick yellow or white discharge from the vagina. • Burning or pain when you urinate or have a bowel movement. • Abnormal periods or bleeding between periods. • Cramps and pain in the lower abdomen (belly). • UP TO 90% OF ALL WOMEN SHOW NO SYMPTOMS AND DO NOT KNOW THEY HAVE GONORREA!!
Bacterial - Gonorrhea Symptoms in Males: • thick, yellow or white drip from the penis. • Burning or pain when you urinate or have a bowel movement. • The need to urinate more often • ABOUT 10% OF MEN WITH GONORRHEA SHOW NO SYMPTOMS AND DO NOT KNOW THEY HAVE IT!!!!
Bacterial - Syphilis • Symptoms show up 3 –12 weeks after having sex • Syphilis can be easily treated with antibiotics if caught in the early stages. • Syphilis has symptoms that occur in four stages. • Syphilis is spread during vaginal, oral, and anal sex.
STAGE ONE OF SYPHILIS A painless, reddish-brown chancre sore appears on the genitals, and lasts for 1 –2 weeks.
STAGE TWO OF SYPHILIS Symptoms show up 1 – 6 weeks after the sores heal. Stage two begins with a bumpy skin rash. • Symptoms also include illness such as fever, swollen glands, nausea, headache, sore throat, loss of hair and appetite. • More sores appear around genitals
LATENT STAGE The symptoms from stage two syphilis (sores and rashes) generally fade away within several weeks. Some people remain in this stage for the rest of their lives, and although they have NO symptoms, they are contagious. TERTIARY STAGE There are serious complications to inner organs. Syphilis attacks the brain, heart, spinal cord, eyes, and joints. Death can occur at this stage. (ex. Al Capone) STAGE THREE STAGE FOURof syphilis of syphilis
Symptoms in men: Irritation inside the penis Mild discharge Slight burning after urination or ejaculation Symptoms in women: Frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge Strong odor Discomfort during urination and intercourse Itching and irritation in the genital area Bacterial - Trichomoniasis • Caused by a parasite • Women may have babies with low birth weight
SCABIES AND PUBIC LICE (CRABS) • The scabies mite and pubic lice can be transmitted during sex, or close physical contact with a friend or family member. • They burrow under the skin and cause severe itching. This can produce sores. • Scabies is easily treated with a special cream and by washing all clothes and bedding.
Bacterial – PID • Spreading of bacterial infections to reproductive organs • Serious infection of reproductive organs • Can lead to infertility • Can cause long-term pelvic pain • Increase change of ectopic pregnancy • Is known to be related to cervical cancer
Viral – HPV (Genital Warts) • Can be found on the genitals, anus and in the throat. • Symptoms appear within 1- 8 months after coming in contact with the virus. • There are over 70 different strains of this virus. • This virus is highly contagious!! • On a box of condoms, it will warn that they may not offer protection from this virus because it is so small.
HPV SYMPTOMS IN FEMALES • SYMPTOMS in females: • Soft pinkish colored warts appear on the genitals in moister areas. • Hard grayish-white colored warts appear in dryer areas. • In this photo, a wart is discovered between the vaginal opening and the anus.
HPV SYMPTOMS IN MALES • SYMPTOMS in males: • Pinkish or grayish-white warts may appear on the penis, anus, and in the urethra. • In this photo, the male has warts completely covering his entire penis.
CONSEQUENCES • In females, the virus can cause abnormal cells to develop on the cervix (pre-cancerous cells) which can lead to cancer (cancerous cells) if left untreated. • In males, untreated warts can cause cancer of other bodily organs if left untreated.
TREATMENT OF HPV • The warts may go away on their own, remain unchanged, grow or spread. • The warts can be treated by removing them with laser surgery, freezing with liquid nitrogen, or using surgical incisions. • A mother with warts can give them to her baby during childbirth. • These warts are a VIRUS, so even when they are not visible, the disease is still present FOR LIFE and can infect others!!
HPV VACCINE • The vaccine, Gardasil®, protects against four HPV types, which together cause 70% of cervical cancers and 90% of genital warts • Recommended for 11-12 year-old girls, and can be given to girls as young as 9. The vaccine is also recommended for 13-26 year-old girls/women who have not yet received or completed the vaccine series • Almost 100% effective in preventing diseases caused by the four HPV types covered by the vaccine– including precancers of the cervix, vulva and vagina, and genital warts. • This vaccine does not treat existing HPV infections, genital warts, precancers or cancers • About 30% of cervical cancers will not be prevented by the vaccine, so it will be important for women to continue getting screened for cervical cancer (regular Pap tests). • Does not prevent about 10% of genital warts—nor will it prevent other sexually transmitted infections.
Viral – Genital Herpes • Symptoms show up 1 –30 days or longer after having sex • Herpes can be accompanied by flu-like symptoms • Herpes comes in two forms: HSV – 1 (herpes simplex virus 1) or HSV – 2 (herpes simplex virus 2)
HERPES • HSV-1 – Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Generally in the form of cold sores or small painful blisters on the mouth. This form of herpes CAN BE SPREAD to the genitals during oral sex!!
HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS 2 • In males, painful blisters or sores appear on the genitals. • Usually, there is burning or itching before the sore or blisters appear. • Blisters last for 1 – 3 weeks. • The blisters may go away, BUT THE VIRUS IS THERE FOR LIFE, so you can infect someone at any time. • The blister and sores can come back in frequent outbreaks.
MORE PICTURES OF HERPES SIMPLEX 2 • Pictured on the right is anal herpes. The anus is the most contagious area to contract an STD! • Below is herpes 2 in the very early stages.
Men do not normally experience major problems, but herpes CANNOT be cured and they are infected for life. Women can experience vulval and cervical cancer. There may be damage born to the baby during birth. THERE IS NO TREATMENT FOR HERPES. A person with herpes is MOST contagious when there are open sores and blisters. CONSEQUENCES OF HERPES IN MEN AND WOMEN
HIV/AIDS:Whatdoes “AIDS” mean?? • AIDS stands for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: • Acquired means you can get infected with it. • Immune Deficiency means a weakness in the body's system that fights diseases. • Syndrome means a group of health problems that make up a disease.
“HIV” • Roughly 40,000 people become infected each year • AIDS is caused by a virus called HIV, the Human Immunodeficiency Virus. • Body will try to fight the infection by making "antibodies" -- special molecules to fight HIV. • A blood test for HIV looks for these antibodies. People who have the HIV antibodies are called "HIV-Positive.“ • Being HIV-positive is not the same as having AIDS.
HIV continued • Once contracted, virus multiplies for several months • Attacks Cd4 or “T-cells” • T-cells help organize bodies defense against disease • T-cell count of healthy person= between 500-1500 per cubic millimeter (1 drop of blood)
HIV continued • Many people are HIV-positive but don't get sick for many years. • HIV it slowly wears down the immune system. • Viruses, parasites, fungi and bacteria that usually don't cause any problems can make you very sick if your immune system is damaged. • called “Opportunistic Infections." (OI’s)
Signs/Symptoms of HIV • Can take months to present signs • Symptoms: Fever, headache, sore muscles and joints, stomach ache, swollen lymph glands, skin rash, “flu-like” symptoms • Takes months for HIV disease to show up in tests • Still a virus carrier, even if no symptoms are present
How is HIV/AIDS spread? • Unprotected Sex • Sharing needles • Blood transfusions • Unprotected Oral/Anal Sex • Semen • Vaginal Fluid • Breast Milk
“AIDS” • When immune system is seriously damaged as a result of HIV virus • T-cell count of less than 200 or T-cell percentage of less than 14% • Severe risk of Illness -Contracting an “OI”
AIDS continued • Some people with the AIDS virus could develop ARC (AIDS Related Complex) - Symptoms include fatigue, diarrhea, fever, swollen glands, facial wasting, loss of appetite, loss of weight, skin rashes, and/or night sweats.
Common “OI’s” • Pneumonia (lung infection) • Kaposi's Sarcoma (skin cancer) • Cytomegalovirus “CMV” (eye infection) • Candida (fungal infection that causes thrush or infections in the throat and vagina)
HIV/AIDS Treatments • NO CURE • Antiretroviral drugs “cocktails” -can get extremely costly -drugs that slow down damage to immune system -can improve quality of life for years -treat OI’s -required for the remainder of life
Testing for HIV • The most common HIV test is a blood test • Tests look for "antibodies" to HIV. • Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system to fight a specific germ. • Antibody test results for HIV are accurate more than 99.5% of the time • Test is usually done two or more times. • The first test is called an "EIA" or "ELISA" test. • Before a positive ELISA test result is reported, it is confirmed by another test called a "Western Blot."
Testing Continued • Newer tests can detect HIV antibodies in mouth fluid (not the same as saliva), a scraping from inside the cheek, or urine. • Home test kits: You can't test yourself for HIV at home. The "Home Access" test kit is only designed to collect a sample of your blood. You send the sample to a laboratory where it is tested for HIV. • If you think you were exposed to HIV, wait for two months before being tested. A positive test result means that you have HIV antibodies, and are infected with HIV • You can be tested anonymously in many places.
Death from HIV/AIDS • Length of life varies from person to person • Some people die within months of contracting the disease • Some people live normal lives for years, even after having contracted AIDS • Death is usually a result from other infections (OI’s) that a healthy immune system would have no problem fighting off
AIDS Myths/Misconceptions • I can get the virus from having contact with the same surfaces that a HIV/AIDS patient has had contact with • I can get HIV/AIDS from kissing someone • I can get AIDS from an infected persons saliva, tears, or sweat • HIV/AIDS is a “gay disease” • I can get the virus through insects • I can get the virus by sharing exercise equipment • I can get the virus through shared air