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El Subjuntivo

El Subjuntivo

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El Subjuntivo

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  1. El Subjuntivo Using the Subjunctive Mood in Spanish

  2. What differences do you see in the following sentences? • It’s raining outside. I hope that it’s raining outside. • We will have a lot of homework. I don’t want us to have a lot of homework. • She eats healthy food. It’s good that she eats healthy food. • I’m certain that he is coming. I doubt that he is coming.

  3. The subjunctive… • Is a mood, not a tense. • *A tense deals with when something happens (past, present). • Example: We’re going to the beach tomorrow. • *Amood expresses how a speaker feels about something. • Example: I am happy that we are going to the beach tomorrow.

  4. The Indicative Mood • Up until now, we’ve been using the indicative mood, which states factual information. • The indicative requires certainty on the part of the speaker. • Examples: We are going to the beach tomorrow. Vamos a la playa mañana. • I think that it’s going to rain. Creoqueva a llover.

  5. Summary: • The Subjunctive: • Uncertainty/Subjectivity • Examples: • Dudoquevayamosa ganar. • Esposibleque no tengamostarea. • The Indicative: • Certainty/Objectivity • Examples: • Yocreoquevamosa ganar. • Esciertoque no tenemostarea.

  6. The Indicative and Subjunctive are represented by 2 types of Guys: • Mr. Dreamer (Subjunctive) • Talks about feelings and the hypothetical • Out of touch with reality • Doubts and is uncertain • Mr. Factual (Indicative) • Knows the facts • Deals in reality • Is sure and certain

  7. In order to use the subjunctive… • There must be 2 clauses in a sentence separated by the word que (that). • (A clause = a group of words with a subject and a conjugated verb) • 2. There must be a subject change between clauses. • 3. The main clause must be an expression of will (hope, want, wish), doubt or denial, emotion, or an impersonal expression (it’s possible, it’s necessary). • Main ClauseConnectorSubordinate Clause • I doubt that the movie is good. • He hopes that she doesn’t arrive late. • It’s good that we don’t have homework. • We don’t believe that they have the money.

  8. When there is no subject change… • An infinitive is often used. • Examples: I want to go with you. Quieroircontigo. • It’ necessary to study every night. Esnecesarioestudiarcadanoche. • It’s good to exercise. Esbuenohacerejercicio.

  9. Who would say the following? Mr. Factual or Mr. Dreamer ? • I hope that it rains tomorrow. • She is coming with us. • I want her to come with us. • It’s possible that she calls today. • I’m sure that she’s calling today. • He might be here already. • He already arrived. • It’s terrible that you aren’t coming. • I wish you would come. • I have to work at 8:00.

  10. Would the high-lighted verb be in the subjunctive or the indicative mood? • We hope that you havea good time. • I think that this is difficult. • I wish that we didn’t have to leave. • I want to eatchocolate. • I hope that I havea good time. • It’s possible that it is snowing outside. • They doubt that we will win. • She believes that it is important. • We think that the book is good. • It’s terrible that she is sick.

  11. The Three steps to Forming the Subjunctive: • Put the verb in the yo form of the present tense. • Ex: poner – pongo • 2. Drop the “o” • Ex: pong • 3. Add the opposite ending (-ar verbs get –er endings, -er/ir verbs get –ar endings) • Ex: yoponga *theyo form is the same as the 3rd person form • túpongas • ud. ponga • nosotrospongamos • vosotrospongáis • ellospongan

  12. Put the following verbs in the subjunctive forms.

  13. Put the following verbs in their subjunctive forms.

  14. Verbs that are irregular in the present tense yo form are irregular in the subjunctive mood.

  15. Verbs with spelling changes: • Verbs ending in –car • the c changes to quEx: yosace – yosaque, túsaques, etc • Verbs ending in –gar the g becomes gu Ex: yojuege– yojuegue, tújuegues, etc • Verbs ending in –zar • the z changes to cEx: yoempieze – yoempiece, etc

  16. Other spelling changes: • Verbs ending in –gerand –gir • the g changes to j before an a • Examples: • escoger - yoescojaelegir - yoelija • túescojastúelijas • ellaescojaélelija • nosotrosescojamosnosotroselijamos • ellosescojanellaselijan

  17. Other spelling changes: • Verbs ending in –guir • the gu changes to g before an a • Example: • seguir - yosiga • túsigas • ellasiga • nosotrossigamos • ellossigan

  18. When Do you Use the Subjunctive? • Wishes, hopes, desires • Emotion • Impersonal Expressions • Requests • Doubt, Denial • Ojalá If the verb in the main clause is a WEIRDO verb, the verb in the subordinate clause will be in the subjunctive if there is a subject change.

  19. Wishes • Using the subjunctive with expressions of hope and desire

  20. Expressions of wishes, hope, desire • Mr. Factual • Mr. Dreamer El subjuntivoesdivertido. Esperoqueseadivertidoestudiar el subjuntivo.

  21. To express what you want, hope, or wish to happen, use the following expressions. • Desearque • Esperarque • Quererque • Ojalá (que)

  22. Examples: • Quieroque me llamesdespués de clase. • I want you to call me after class. • Esperamosquesirvan pizza hoy. • We hope that they serve pizza today. • Ellosdeseanqueellavengatemprano. • They want her to come early.

  23. Complete the following sentences with a verb in the subjunctive. • Deseoque mi madre/padre ___________________________. • Quieroquemis amigos _______________________________. • Esperoquetú _______________________________________.

  24. Using the subjunctive with Expressions of emotion

  25. Expressions of emotion • Mr. Factual • Mr. Dreamer Estoycontentoqueestudiemos el subjuntivomás. Estudiamos el subjuntivomás.

  26. Common expressions of emotion *There are many of these! • Estarcontento/a que • Alegrarse de que • Sentirque • Encantarque • Gustarque • Enojarseque • Esunalástimaque • Esunapenaque • Temerque • Sorprenderse de que • Tenermiedo de

  27. In Spanish, you must use the subjunctive after an expression of emotion, regardless of whether or not the information is true. • Examples: • Estoycontentaquemi amigalleguehoy. • Esmaloquemuchosestudiantes no comprendanla información. • Estristequeestésenfermo.

  28. Complete the following sentences with a verb in the subjunctive. • Me alegro de que ___________________________. • Esunalástimaque __________________________. • Me encantaque ____________________________.

  29. Using the subjunctive with impersonal expressions

  30. Impersonal Expressions • Mr. Factual • Mr. Dreamer Esimportantequeaprendamosusar el subjuntivo. Aprendemosusar el subjuntivo.

  31. To present an opinion, the subjunctive is often used with the following impersonal expressions. • (No) esbuenoque… • (No) esmaloque … • (No) esimportanteque… • (No) esposibleque … • (No) esimposibleque… • (No) esraroque … • (No) esnecesarioque … • (No) es probable que …

  32. Examples: • Esimportantequevengamosa tiempo. • Esposiblequetengamostareaestanoche. • Esraroqueellos noescuchen.

  33. Remember: Some impersonal Expressions demonstrate certainty and are used with the indicative. • Esevidenteque… • Esobvioque … • Esverdadque … • Esciertoque… • No esdudosoque … • Examples: Esevidentequeelladice la verdad. • Esciertoqueélesmuyinteligente.

  34. Using the subjunctive to make requests (verbs of influence)

  35. Verbs of influence • Mr. Factual • Mr. Dreamer Recomiendoqueestudiesespañoltodos los días. Debesestudiarespañoltodos los días.

  36. The following verbs are used to influence the actions of others. • Verbs of Influence: • Aconsejarque • Dejarque • Exigirque • Insistir (en) que • Mandarque • Pedir (e:i) que • Prohibirque • Recomendar (e:ie) que • Sugerir (e:ie) que

  37. *The subjunctive is often used to make requests instead of using commands. It has a “softer” and sometimes more polite effect. • Examples: Estudiemás. • Study more. • Recomiendoqueestudiesmás. • I recommend that you study more. • Quieroqueestudiesmás. • I want you to study more.

  38. Imagine that a doctor is making the following recommendations. Complete them with the verb in the subjunctive. • Doctor: “Recomiendoquetú ________________ (dormir) mucho y que • _______________ (quedarse) en camapor dos días.” • Doctor: “Sugieroquetú ________________ (hacer) unaconsulta en unasemana.” • Doctor: “Mandoquetú no ________________ (caminar) en el pie portressemanas.”

  39. Imagine that a doctor is making the following recommendations. Complete them with the verb in the subjunctive. • Doctor: “Recomiendoquetúduermas (dormir) mucho y que • tequedes(quedarse) en camapor dos días.” • Doctor: “Sugieroquetúhagas (hacer) unaconsulta en unasemana.” • Doctor: “Mandoquetú no camines(caminar) en el pie portressemanas.”

  40. Using the subjunctive with Expressions of doubt and denial

  41. Verbs of doubt and denial • Mr. Factual • Mr. Dreamer Dudoquevaya a llover hoy. Creoqueva a llover hoy.

  42. Expressions of Doubt and denial • Dudarque • Esdudosoque • Esimposibleque • Es improbable que • No esciertoque • No esverdadque • No estarseguro/a de que • Negar (e:ie) que

  43. Examples: • Dudoqueélgane la elección. • Esdudosoqueyosaqueunabuena nota en el examen. • Es improbable queellosesténlistosahora.

  44. Complete the following sentences: • Dudoque mi amgio _________________________. • No esverdadque ___________________________. • Es improbable que __________________________.

  45. Usando La frase: Ojalá

  46. Ojalá • *Cannot be conjugated • *Is a word of Arabic origin that can be roughly translated as: “If Allah wants it” or “God willing” • *Means the same thing as “hopefully” or “I hope” but has a little stronger meaning than the verb esperar. • *Can be used with or without the word que. • *The verb after ojalá should be in the subjunctive. • Examples: ¡Ojaláquellueva! I hope it rains! • ¡Ojaláella lo haga! I hope she does it!