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el subjuntivo n.
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EL SUBJUNTIVO.

EL SUBJUNTIVO.

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EL SUBJUNTIVO.

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  1. EL SUBJUNTIVO.

  2. Reglasgenerales • Indicative Mood
certainty and objectivity • Subjunctive Mood
uncertainty and subjectivity. • you will usually see it in sentences that contain a main clause which introduces a quality of uncertainty or subjectivity.

  3. Indicative • John goes to the store.
(This sentence merely states the certain, objective fact that John goes to the store.) • I know that John goes to the store.
(The clause "I know" tells us that the speaker feels that it is a certain, objective fact that John goes to the store.) • There is no doubt that John goes to the store.
(The clause "there is no doubt" tells us that the speaker feels that it is a certain, objective fact that John goes to the store.)

  4. Subjunctive • I want John to go to the store.
(The clause "I want" tells us that the speaker feels that there is uncertainty as to whether John goes to the store.) • I hope that John goes to the store.
(The clause "I hope" tells us that the speaker feels that there is uncertainty as to whether John goes to the store.) • It is possible that John will go to the store.
(The clause "it is possible" tells us that the speaker feels that there is uncertainty as to whether John goes to the store.) • It's good that John goes to the store.
(The clause "it's good" alerts us that the speaker is about to express a subjective opinion.) • It's important that John goes to the store.
(The clause "it's important" alerts us that the speaker is about to express a subjective opinion.)

  5. Subjunctive

  6. Indicative

  7. We also use the subjunctive in the negative imperative, ex. No bebas alcohol, no dejestucama sin hacer. • Also after words like espero, quizás… • Esperoquevengas, quizásvayamañana……

  8. COMO CONJUGAR

  9. Present Subjunctive • For most verbs, the present subjunctive is formed by following these three steps: • Start with the yo form of the present indicative. • Then drop the -o ending. • Finally, add the following endings: • -ar verbs:
-e, -es, -e, -emos, -éis, -en • -erand -ir verbs:
-a, -as, -a, -amos, -áis, -an

  10. The formula also works for verbs that have irregular "yo" forms in the present indicative. Study these examples: • conocer (yoconozco)
conozco - o = conozc • conozc + a = conozcaconozc + as = conozcasconozc + a = conozcaconozc + amos = conozcamosconozc + áis = conozcáisconozc + an = conozcan • Tenga, salga,

  11. Present Subjunctive - -ar and -er stem-changing verbs • Conjugate just like regular subjunctives (using "yo" form of the indicative) except the stem change does not occur in the nosotros/vosotros forms: • pensar • piensepiensespiensepensemospenséispiensen

  12. Present Subjunctive - -IRstem-changing verbs • Conjugate just like regular subjunctives (using "yo" form of the indicative) except the stem change in the nosotros and vosotros forms follows these patterns: o:ue verbs change o to u; e:ie verbs change e to i; e:i verbs change e to i.: • dormir - durmamossentir - sintamospedir– pidamos • Practica:http://studyspanish.com/practice/subj2.htm

  13. OTROS CAMBIOS • -zar: z changes to c before e
(present subjunctive) • empezar (e:ie) • empieceempiecesempieceempecemosempecéisempiecen • -ger or -gir: g changes to j before a
(present subjunctive) • escoger • escojaescojasescojaescojamosescojáisescojan

  14. -guir: gu changes to g before a
(present subjunctive) • seguir (e:i) • sigasigassigasigamossigáissigan • -car: c changes to qu before e
-gar g changes to gu before e
(present subjunctive) • buscar / pagar • busque / paguebusques / paguesbusque / paguebusquemos / paguemosbusquéispaguéisbusquen / paguen

  15. uir: add y before a
(present subjunctive) • huir • huyahuyashuyahuyamoshuyáishuyan • http://studyspanish.com/practice/subj3.htm

  16. IRREGULARES

  17. Practica: http://studyspanish.com/practice/subj4.htm.

  18. Subjuntivo de deseo

  19. one of the many ways the subjunctive is used: to express desire. • Here is a list of common expressions that introduce an aspect of desire to the sentence, and therefore trigger the use of the subjunctive. • esperarque • to wish that ... • insistir en que ... • to insist that ... • mandarque ... • to order that ...

  20. preferirque ... • to prefer that ... • prohibirque ... • to prohibit that ... • quererque ... • to want that ... • esaconsejableque ... • it's advisable that ... • esnecesarioque ... • it's necessary that ... • pedirque ... • to ask that ... • recomendarque ... • to recommend that ... • rogarque ... • to plead that ... • sugerirque ... • to suggest that ...

  21. Remember, there are also expressions that trigger the use of the indicative mood since they introduce a quality of certainty or objectivity • creerque ... • to believe that ... • no dudarque ... • to not doubt that ... • estarseguroque ... • to be sure that ... • no esdudosoque ... • it is not doubtful that ... • no hay dudaque ... • there is no doubt that ... • Practica:http://studyspanish.com/practice/subj5.htm.

  22. SUBJUNTIVO DE DUDA O IGNORANCIA

  23. In this lesson, you will practice another of the many ways the subjunctive is used: to express ignorance or doubt. Here is a list of common expressions that introduce an aspect of ignorance or doubt to the sentence, and therefore trigger the use of the subjunctive. • dudarque ... • to doubt that ... • esdudosoque ... • it is doubtful that ... • es improbable que ... • it's unlikely that ... • esinciertoque ... • it's uncertain that ... • esposibleque ... • it's possible that ... • no creerque ... • not to believe that ... • no esciertoque ... • it's not certain that ... • no estarconvencido de que ... • to not be convinced that ... • no estarseguro de que ... • to not be sure that ... • no parecerque ... • to not seem that ... • no pensarque ... • to not think that ... • no suponerque ... • to not suppose that ... • puedeserque ... • it may be that ... • negarque ... • to deny that ... • no esverdadque ... • it's not true that ... • no esciertoque ... • it's not certain that ... • no imaginarseque ... • to not imagine that ... • temerque ... • to suspect that ...

  24. Remember, there are also expressions that trigger the use of the indicative mood, since they introduce a quality of certainty. Here's a partial list of such expressions that we will mix into the practice exercises for this lesson, just to keep you on your toes! • no dudoque ... • to not doubt that ... • estarseguro de que ... • to be certain that ... • creerque ... • to think that ... • no negarque ... • to not deny that ... • esverdadque ... • it's true that ... • http://studyspanish.com/practice/subj6.htm.

  25. SUBJUNTIVO DE EXPRESIONES IMPERSONALES

  26. In this lesson, you will simply practice another of the many ways the subjunctive is used: after certain impersonal expressions. • Here is a list of common impersonal expressions that introduce an aspect of uncertainty or subjectivity, and therefore trigger the use of the subjunctive. You will notice that there is some overlap with other lessons. That is, you may see some of these impersonal expressions in other subjunctive lessons, as well.

  27. convieneque ... • it is advisable that ... • esaconsejableque ... • it is advisable that ... • esbuenoque ... • it's good that ... • esdifícilque ... • it's unlikely that ... • esdudosoque ... • it's doubtful that ... • esfácilque ... • it's likely that ... • esfantásticoque ... • it's fantastic that ... • esimportanteque ... • it's important that ... • esimposibleque ... • it's impossible that ... • es improbable que ... • it's unlikely that ... • esinciertoque ... • it's uncertain that ... • esincreíbleque ... • it's incredible that ... • es (una) lástimaque ... • it's a shame that ... • esmaloque ... • it's bad that ... • esmejorque ... • it's better that ... • esmenesterque ... • it's necessary that ... • esnecesarioque ... • it's necessary that ... • esposibleque ... • it's possible that ... • esprecisoque ... • it's necessary that ... • espreferibleque ... • it's preferable that ... • es probable que ... • it's likely that ... • esraroque ... • it's rare that ... • esridículoque ... • it's ridiculous that ... • es terrible que ... • it's terrible that ... • más vale que ... • it's better that ... • ojaláque ... • if only he would ... • puedeserque ... • it could be that ...

  28. Remember, there are also impersonal expressions that trigger the use of the indicative mood, since they introduce a quality of certainty or objectivity. Here's a partial list of such expressions that we will mix into the practice exercises for this lesson, just to keep you on your toes! • esevidenteque ... • it is certain that ... • esobvioque ... • it is obvious that ... • esverdadque ... • it's true that ... • no esdudosoque ... • it is not doubtful that ... • no hay dudaque ... • there is no doubt that ... • Practica:http://studyspanish.com/practice/subj7.htm.

  29. SUBJUNTIVO DE ACCIONES TODAVÍA NO COMPLETAS

  30. The following expressions ONLY invoke the subjunctive when they indicate that the action that follows has not yet been completed: • después de que... • after... • Ejemplo: SUBJ Después de que me diga la verdad le perdonaré. • INDIC. Después de que me dijo la verdad le perdoné. • en cuanto... • as soon as... • hasta que... • until... • mientrasque... • while... • tan pronto como... • as soon as...

  31. Here is a list of common expressions that may indicate that the action that follows has not yet been completed. These expressions will ALWAYS invoke the subjunctive: • a menosque ... • unless ... • antes (de) que ... • before ... • con tal (de) que ... • provided that ... • en caso de que ... • in case ... • paraque ... • so that ... • sin que ... • without ...

  32. Remember, there are also expressions that trigger the use of the indicative mood, since they introduce a quality of certainty or objectivity. Here's a partial list of such expressions that we will mix into the practice exercises for this lesson, just to keep you on your toes! • esciertoque ... • it is certain that ... • esclaroque ... • it is clear that ... • esevidenteque ... • it is certain that ... • esobvioque ... • it is obvious that ... • esverdadque ... • it is true that ... • Practica:http://www.studyspanish.com/practice/subj8.htm