Bowlby’sInternal Working Model theory • Attachment between mother and child is a basic biological need. • It is the first and most important schema the child forms for viewing -oneself -others -how one relates to others.
Strange Situation • Parent and child are alone in a room. • Child explores the room without parental participation. • Stranger enters the room, talks to parent, and approaches the child. • Parent quietly leaves the room. • Parent returns and comforts the child.
Ainsworth (1967) Ugandan Strange Situation study • 28 unweaned babies were observed every 2 weeks for 2 hours at a time for 9 months. • Ainsworth used an interpreter as well as various rating scales to measure maternal sensitivity. • The strange situation was observed and interviews were conducted.
Findings Categorization of children correlated significantly with ratings of mother’s sensitivity: Avoidant- Child appears indifferent when mother leaves and avoids mother when she comes back. Securely attached-Child is upset when mother leaves and is happy to see her again. Ambivalent- Child is upset when mother leaves, and when mother comes back the child seeks comfort but also rejects it.
Ainsworth (1971) Baltimore, US Strange situation study • 26 mother-infant pairs were visited in their homes every 3-4 weeks for the 1st year of the infant’s life. • Findings: Avoidant (20%) Securely attached (70%) Ambivalent (10%)
Hazan and Shaver (1987) • Created a “love quiz” in a local newspaper. • 620 people, aged 14-82 years, mean age of 36 years, 205 males, 415 females • Researchers also asked pariticpants to describe their parents parenting style using an adjective checklist.
Findings: • 60% securely attached, 20% avoidant, 20% ambivalent