Don’t you dare plagiarize after this lesson (summarize, quote, paraphrase, cite, works cited) Created by Miss Griffith Sept 2010 ( with a little help from Coffin)
What is plagiarism? Plagiarize: 1716, from plagiary (c.1600), from plagiarius “one who kidnaps the child or slave of another,” also “a literary thief,” from plagiare “to kidnap” (www.etymonline.com) It’s taking other people’s ideas and passing them off as your own – it can be accidental or on purpose – either way it is a serious offense.
So, if it’s a serious offense to borrow other people’s ideas, why do I have to research and then write about what I find? • You borrow/use/quote/paraphrase other people’s ideas for 3 main reasons: • They give credibility because they are experts in their field • They show you know what you’re talking about in your essay • They say something much better than you ever could • You can safely borrow/use/quote/paraphrase the ideas of others as long as you cite it.
When to summarize , paraphrase or quote: • When you summarize, you condense the original material, using fewer words to cover the same idea. • Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. • A summary of someone else’s idea must be cited in your text and in your Works Cited page. • Summarize when: • you want to establish background or offer a quick overview of a topic. • you want to describe knowledge (from several sources) about a topic. • you want to determine the main ideas of a single source.
When you paraphrase, you use roughly the same number of words to restate the original idea. • Paraphrasing is stating an idea in your own words. • You must significantly change the wording, phrasing, and sentence structure of the source (not just a few words). • Paraphrases must be cited in your text and in your Works Cited page. • Paraphrase when: • you want to clarify a short passage from a text • you want to avoid overusing quotations • you want to explain a point when exact wording isn’t important • you want to explain the main points of a passage • you want to report numerical data or statistics
The most important thing to remember, whether you are summarizing or paraphrasing, is that you must not borrow too much from your original source. • You must use your own words and your own phrasing. • If you do not change enough of the vocabulary and sentence structure of the original passage, you have plagiarized.
Quotations are the exact words of the author, copied directly from a source (book, web page, interview, etc.), word-for-word. • Quotations must be cited in your text (using embedded citations) and in your Works Cited page. • Use quotations when: • you want to add the power of an author’s/expert’s words to support your argument • you want to disagree with an author’s/expert’s argument • you want to highlight particularly eloquent or powerful phrases or passages • you are comparing and contrasting specific points of view • you want to note the important
When do I cite: When you use an idea, image, words, graphs, audio, video, pictures, photos, etc. that is not your own, original work created from your own sweat or brain power. For this assignment, you must cite all your support!! (because it’s research based, not original thinking)
How to use Quotations: Most of you can integrate summarizing and paraphrasing well; you do a good job weaving it into your sentence (remember to cite it). Quoted material must fit within your sentence; it must go with the flow. Weave quoted material into your sentence smoothly so that your flow is not disrupted.
Practice a bit… Original material: I'm vice principal at an elementary school outfitted with the latest technology. One day a guidance counselor asked me and another staff member to copy a video I had assembled from clips of the children's work for an upcoming workshop. We worked diligently, but when we were finished, we learned that we had not only failed to copy the tape, but erased the original. As we headed for the audio-visual room to put together another tape, we overheard the counselor quip to the principal, “There they go…dub and dubber!” (MacDonald, Ken . “Tales Out of School”. Reader’s Digest , 27 Sept 2010 http://www.readersdigest.ca/laugh_search.html)
Summarize: Two staff members try to put various video clips together into one continuous reel, but instead erase the originals. They are made fun of by their colleagues. Paraphrase: A vice-principal and a teacher are asked to create one continuous recording made up of several video clips. They work at a technologically advanced school so should be able to do this easily. Somehow the adults erase the originals before copying them. This results in their colleagues making fun of them, with a pun based on a movie title. Quote: “I'm vice principal at an elementary school outfitted with the latest technology. One day a guidance counselor asked me and another staff member to copy a video I had assembled from clips of the children's work for an upcoming workshop. “
Rules for Quoting: Use an ellipsis (. . . ) to show material you’ve omitted. You can’t take out material that changes meaning. Don’t use . . . at the beginning or end of the quote. Use square brackets [ ] to show words, prefixes, or suffixes you’ve added. This only corrects errors in the original or changes tense so the original makes sense. Always introduce your quote. If it’s a complete sentence, put a colon (:) to show the quote is starting (and use “ “); if your intro isn’t a complete sentence then use whatever punctuation (if any) is needed so it makes sense. The end punctuation of the quote must work with your writing, not the original. Punctuate after citation. Quote exactly, word for word. Use single quotation marks (‘ ‘) to show a quote within a quote, OR dialogue within a quote. If your quote is longer than 4 typed lines, indent it 5 spaces on the left and right, single space, don’t use quotation marks, still give a citation. Explain your source, don’t just stick it there and hope the reader can figure out why it’s there. Quote sparingly; paraphrasing is usually more effective and shorter.
The preceding page was brought to you by Fit to Print, 7th Edition, pages 84-86. Get it??
Embedded Citations: You have to cite everything that is not your own. In English (and the Humanities), we use MLA style citations. In Sciences you use APA. Or, you do what the teacher tells you. Within your essay, after you give your support, put (author’s last name page number); there is a space between the author’s last name and page number, not a comma. There are a couple other ways to show where you got material; let’s just use this way for now. If you use the same author AND page number twice in a row, you only need to cite it the second time. If this is too confusing, cite every support.
How to make a Works Cited: Look in the yellow pages of your agenda but BEWARE – MLA Works Cited has changed (you can also go to www.easybib.com, which is free, and perfect). We are now using MLA 7th edition – this means your Fit to Print is outdated too. Printed Source It is outdated; online is supposed to be correct. New correct MLA Works Cited for a book: Last name of author, first name of author Title of work (italicized) Edition used Volume number City of publication Name of publisher Year of publication Medium of publication (print) Buckley, Joanne. Fit to Print, 7th Edition. Toronto: Nelson, 2009. Print. This is the new thing
Correct MLA citation for a web page: • Last name, first name of author, compiler, creator • Title of work (italicize) • Title of overall website (italics) if different than #2 • Version or edition • Publisher or sponsor of site; if not available, put N.p. • Date of publication (day, month, year; 28 Sept 2010); if not available, put n.d. • Medium of publication (Web) • Date of access (day, month, year ; 28 Sept 2010) • Web address inside < > (I’m making you do this; it’s not a criteria for MLA 7th edition, although easybib.com uses it) • Because the internet is un-regulated, not all websites will have all this information – you should give as much as you can find.
Use www.easybib.com and make everyone’s life easier. It’s not cheating to use them; I still have to look up how to order citations in a Works Cited. I’ll give you a sample for print and internet sources. Use it. Ask for help if you need it. I expect all your citations to be perfect. There are no excuses.
There will be a quiz on citing on Friday. You may use your notes. Good luck!