Utilitarianism • New thinkers began to modify the idea of Laissez-faire economics. • Philosopher, Jeremy Bentham advocated the idea of utilitarianism. • His idea was that the goal of society should be “the greatest happiness for the greatest number.” • Sought for individual freedom • However, saw the need for government involvement.
Other thinkers felt that the government should step in to improve the hard lives of the working class.
Socialism • Laissez-faire economics focused on individual rights.. • Other thinkers however focused on the good of society in general. • These people disagreed with capitalistic ideas and sought to end poverty and injustice. • In socialism- all people would work together to own and operate the means of production. • Socialism grew out of enlightenment ideas based on the goodness of human nature.
Utopias Many early socialists began their own small communities in which all work and property was shared. These communities attempted to make no difference between the rich and poor.
Karl Marx • German philosopher • Wrote: The Communist Manifesto (1848) with Fredrich Engels • Communism: • A form of socialism in which an inevitable struggle between social classes would lead to the creation of a classless society where all means of production would be owned by the community.
Communism • The “Haves” and the “Have-nots” • “Haves”- Those that have always owned the means of production and controlled society. • Bourgeoisies • “Have-nots”- Were the proletariat, the working class. • Marx predicted that the proletariat would lead a revolution against capitalism. • These workers would then take control of the means of production and set up a classless, communist society.
Communism As everyone now works together, war is a thing of the past – armies are not needed. Sharing means no police are needed. Everything is provided by the people – so money becomes a thing of the past. All human activity goes towards benefiting each other – allowing all to live their lives to the full.