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Broadcasting

Broadcasting

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Broadcasting

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  1. Broadcasting • The FCC says the term “broadcasting” means transmissions intended for reception by the general public, either direct or relayed. (See §97.3(a)(10)) • This is important for hams, because ... Release 1.0 – September 2006

  2. ...Ham Communications are Generally Two-Way • The whole idea behind getting a ham license is to talk to other hams, but there are a few exceptions. You can telecommand (operate) your model plane, boat or car using amateur radio, as we’ll soon see. You can also make brief transmissions to adjust your station, and you can even transmit Morse code practice. However, you can never make broadcasts intended for reception by the general public. • (See §§97.3(a)(10), 97.113(b)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  3. Hams are not Broadcasters • If you want to be the next Rush Limbaugh, ham radio is not the place to do it. The FCC frowns on most activities that might be considered broadcasting. • For example, amateur stations are never authorized to transmit information to the general public. (See §97.113(b)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  4. Music – Only from Mission Control! • If talk radio isn’t your thing, but music is, that’s fine, but for the most part, you cannot transmit music via amateur radio with one exception. • Back at the beginning of the Space Shuttle program, the FCC said it was OK for hams to rebroadcast audio between the Shuttle and Mission Control. There was only one problem - NASA wakes the crew every morning with some of the astronauts’ favorite tunes, and retransmitted tunes would violate the music rule. The FCC changed the rule so that it now says amateurs may not transmit music, except as incidental to an authorized rebroadcast of space shuttle communications. (See §97.113(e)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  5. Codes and Ciphers – Generally Not Allowed! • Want to communicate with the love of your life over the air by saying little code words that only the two of you can understand? Well, you’d better use the phone, because the transmission of codes or ciphers to hide the meaning of a message transmitted by an amateur station is generally not allowed. • But there are a couple of exceptions. As you will learn later, some amateurs have worked very hard to get amateur satellites into space for communications. These satellites have to be controlled from the ground. You’ll also learn that other hams use amateur radio to control radio-controlled models. As a result the FCC says that codes and ciphers may be used only when transmitting control commands to space stations (amateur satellites) or radio controlled model craft. (See §97.113(a)(4), 97.211(b), 97.217) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  6. Unidentified Communications • You may already be familiar with CB or Internet chat rooms where everyone has a handle and nobody goes by their real name, but that’s not the way it is with amateur radio. As a general rule, every amateur station must regularly identify itself, and this is usually done with the amateur call sign (more about that later), but there is another exception that applies to space stations and radio-controlled craft. The rule is that an amateur station may not generally transmit unidentified communications except when sent from a space station or to control a model craft. (See §97.119(b)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  7. No False or Deceptive Signals • Another no-no is transmitting false or deceptive signals. For example, if you want to pretend to be a ham transmitting from a far away location, you can’t do it. An amateur may never transmit false or deceptive signals. (See §97.113(a)(4)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  8. Watch Your Language! • As far as subject matter on the air, goes, there is really only one thing to remember. You can talk politics, discuss what your saw on TV last night, send Morse code practice, or talk about pretty much whatever you want to. However, the one thing you can never do is use indecent or obscene language. That has no place on the ham bands. (See §97.113(a)(4)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  9. You Can’t Use Your Radio for Business • As a general rule, the FCC allows an amateur radio station to be used as a method of communication for hire or material compensation only when it’s done in accordance with Part 97 rules. (See §97.113(2)) • The exceptions in the rules generally cover teachers using amateur radio as part of their curriculum and employees working at amateur radio organizations with operating stations. One of these is covered later in this study guide. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  10. You Can’t Use an Autopatch For Business Either! • Before cell phones, many amateur radio repeaters featured an autopatch. An autopatch is a device that lets you place a telephone call from your radio through an amateur repeater. (More on repeaters later.) It was nice to be able to make a personal call from your car. Nowadays, most everyone has a cell phone, and although autopatches are still around, they are not used very often. Because they are still used, you need to know the rules. Using an autopatch, you can make all kinds of personal, non-commercial calls. You can call to get a weather report, report an accident, or report a power outage. However, you could not legally call your employer requesting directions to a customer's office. That would be a business use and is prohibited. (See §97.113(a)(3),(a)5(e)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  11. Amateur Radio “Hoss Tradin’” • Hams love to buy, sell and swap equipment, and a lot of that goes on over the air. The FCC says that’s OK so long as you are offering amateur radio equipment for sale or trade only on an occasional basis. If you want to turn it into a business, you can open a store or go to Ebay, but you can’t do it on the air. (See §97.113(a)3) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  12. Check-Up Time! Now let’s try the questions from this group. You should make a note of any that you miss for later review. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  13. T2A01 • When is an amateur station authorized to transmit information to the general public? • A. Never • B. Only when the operator is being paid • C. Only when the transmission lasts more than 10 minutes • D. Only when the transmission lasts longer than 15 minutes Release 1.0 – September 2006

  14. T2A01 Answer - A • §97.113(b) • (b) An amateur station shall not engage in any form of broadcasting, nor may an amateur station transmit one-way communications except as specifically provided in these rules; nor shall an amateur station engage in any activity related to program production or news gathering for broadcasting purposes, except that communications directly related to the immediate safety of human life or the protection of property may be provided by amateur stations to broadcasters for dissemination to the public where no other means of communication is reasonably available before or at the time of the event. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  15. T2A02 • When is an amateur station authorized to transmit music? • A. Amateurs may not transmit music, except as incidental to an authorized rebroadcast of space shuttle communications • B. Only when the music produces no spurious emissions • C. Only to interfere with an illegal transmission • D. Only when the music is above 1280 MHz Release 1.0 – September 2006

  16. T2A02 Answer - A • §97.113(a)(4), §97.113(e) • Some repeaters rebroadcast Shuttle-ground transmissions from NASA feeds. Sometimes, the ground will play music as part of a wakeup call. This is why music is allowed only in this very limited circumstance. Otherwise, absolutely no transmission of music is allowed! Release 1.0 – September 2006

  17. T2A03 • When is the transmission of codes or ciphers allowed to hide the meaning of a message transmitted by an amateur station? • A. Only during contests • B. Only when operating mobile • C. Only when transmitting control commands to space stations or radio control craft • D. Only when frequencies above 1280 MHz are used Release 1.0 – September 2006

  18. T2A03 Answer - C • §§97.113(a)(4), §97.211(b), §97.217 • The general rule is that no codes or ciphers are permitted. However, an exception is made for controlling space stations such as amateur satellites, or radio controlled model craft. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  19. T2A04 • When may an amateur station transmit false or deceptive signals? • A. Never • B. When operating a beacon transmitter in a "fox hunt" exercise • C. Only when making unidentified transmissions • D. When needed to hide the meaning of a message for secrecy Release 1.0 – September 2006

  20. T2A04 Answer - A • §97.113(a)(4) • No amateur station shall transmit: • (4) Music using a phone emission except as specifically provided elsewhere in this section; communications intended to facilitate a criminal act; messages encoded for the purpose of obscuring their meaning, except as otherwise provided herein; obscene or indecent words or language; or false or deceptive messages, signals or identification; Release 1.0 – September 2006

  21. T2A05 • When may an amateur station transmit unidentified communications? • A. Only during brief tests not meant as messages • B. Only when they do not interfere with others • C. Only when sent from a space station or to control a model craft • D. Only during two-way or third party communications Release 1.0 – September 2006

  22. T2A05 Answer - C • §97.119(b) • Actually, subsection (a) is probably the more appropriate rule reference. It states ” Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel...” • (Note that the telecommand station is the earth station controlling the space station.) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  23. T2A06 • What does the term broadcasting mean? • A. Transmissions intended for reception by the general public, either direct or relayed • B. Retransmission by automatic means of programs or signals from non-amateur stations • C. One-way radio communications, regardless of purpose or content • D. One-way or two-way radio communications between two or more stations Release 1.0 – September 2006

  24. T2A06 Answer - A • §97.3(a)(10) • Broadcasting. Transmissions intended for reception by the general public, either direct or relayed. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  25. T2A07 • Which of the following are specifically prohibited in the Amateur Radio Service? • A. Discussion of politics • B. Discussion of programs on broadcast stations • C. Indecent and obscene language • D. Morse code practice Release 1.0 – September 2006

  26. T2A07 Answer - C • §97.113(a)(4) • No amateur station shall transmit: • *** • (4) Music using a phone emission except as specifically provided elsewhere in this section; communications intended to facilitate a criminal act; messages encoded for the purpose of obscuring their meaning, except as otherwise provided herein; obscene or indecent words or language; or false or deceptive messages, signals or identification; Release 1.0 – September 2006

  27. T2A08 • Which of the following one-way communications may not be transmitted in the Amateur Radio Service? • A. Telecommand of model craft • B. Broadcasts intended for reception by the general public • C. Brief transmissions to make adjustments to the station • D. Morse code practice Release 1.0 – September 2006

  28. T2A08 Answer - B • §97.3(a)(10), §97.113(b) • This is just another way of reinforcing the rule that amateurs may not engage in broadcasting. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  29. T2A09 • When does the FCC allow an amateur radio station to be used as a method of communication for hire or material compensation? • A. Only when making test transmissions • B. Only when news is being broadcast in times of emergency • C. Only when in accordance with part 97 rules • D. Only when your employer is using amateur radio to broadcast advertising Release 1.0 – September 2006

  30. T2A09 Answer - C • §97.113(a)(2) • (a) No amateur station shall transmit: • *** • (2) Communications for hire or for material compensation, direct or indirect, paid or promised, except as otherwise provided in these rules; Release 1.0 – September 2006

  31. T2A10 • What type of communications are prohibited when using a repeater autopatch? • A. Calls to a recorded weather report • B. Calls to your employer requesting directions to a customer's office • C. Calls to the police reporting a traffic accident • D. Calls to a public utility reporting an outage of your telephone Release 1.0 – September 2006

  32. T2A10 Answer - B • §97.113(2)97.113(a)(3),(a)5(e) • You cannot use amateur radio for any business or profit related purpose (pecuniary gain). Release 1.0 – September 2006

  33. T2A11 • When may you use your station to tell people about equipment you have for sale? • A. Never • B. When you are conducting an on-line auction • C. When you are offering amateur radio equipment for sale or trade on an occasional basis • D. When you are helping a recognized charity Release 1.0 – September 2006

  34. T2A11 Answer - C • §97.113(a)3 • No amateur station shall transmit: • *** • (3) Communications in which the station licensee or control operator has a pecuniary interest, including communications on behalf of an employer. Amateur operators may, however, notify other amateur operators of the availability for sale or trade of apparatus normally used in an amateur station, provided that such activity is not conducted on a regular basis; • While you can offer items for sale from time to time, you cannot turn this into a business. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  35. Group T2B Group T2B covers basic identification requirements for amateur operators. It also covers repeater identification and station identification for non-voice modes, as well as identification requirements for mobile and portable operation. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  36. Your Call Sign • In Study Guide # 1, you learned a little bit about your call sign. In this part, you’ll learn a bit more about how to use it. • To begin with, you must always use your FCC assigned call sign to identify your amateur station. (See §97.119(a)) • When talking to a ham in foreign country, using the other ham’s language is a nice gesture if you know it. However, regardless of the language you use to communicate, you must always give your call sign in English. (See §97.119(b)(2)) • Any transmission that does not contain your station identification (your call sign) is considered unidentified communications or signals, and that’s another thing the FCC doesn’t like. (See §97.119(a)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  37. How Often Are You Required To Identify? • By rule, an amateur station must transmit the assigned call sign every 10 minutes during communications and at the end of each communication. (See §97.119(a)) There are several possible questions on this rule alone, so know it well! • (Note that the rule does not require you to give your call at the beginning, but you’ll almost certainly do that anyway as you call or answer a call. However, you are tested on the rule, so answer based on the rule!) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  38. Using Special Event Call Signs • In Study Guide # 1, you learned about those 1 by 1 special event call signs you can apply for. The FCC says that when you use a special event call, you have to ID using your own call sign at least once every hour. It’s a quirky rule, but it’s tested. (See §97.119(d)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  39. Using Self-Assigned Indicators • Some people like to add self-assigned indicators to their call to give other hams additional information. For example, some hams like to communicate using really low power. In the ham world, this is known as QRP. So a ham might want to advertise that he or she is working QRP, and may ID with something like “KA4PUV/QRP.” That’s OK, according to the FCC, so long as the indicator does not conflict with an indicator specified by FCC rules or with a prefix assigned to another country. (See §97.119(c)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  40. Temporary Indicators • Let’s look ahead a bit. Suppose you pass your Morse code and General tests at a future VE session and upgrade to General. Since you already have a license, the CSCE you learned about in Study Guide # 1 will allow you to immediately begin operating as a General by using the temporary indicator “/AG” after your call sign. You can continue to use this temporary indicator until you get your general license. The letters AG mean “authorized General.” (See §97.119(f)(2)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  41. Operating Another Ham’s Station • Suppose you have gotten really smart and upgraded to General. You visit a ham friend who is still a Technician, and you want to operate his equipment, but you want to operate on a frequency only open to Generals or Extras? Can you do it? • Yes, but you have to do it right. Since your buddy cannot be a control operator on a General frequency, you have to be the control operator. To do it right, the FCC says you have to identify by sending your buddy’s call sign first, followed by your call sign. (See §97.119(e)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  42. Repeaters • Amateur repeaters are established by hams to allow longer range communications with low power radios. Repeaters are stations that receive a transmission on one frequency and repeat it on another. Repeater antennas are usually located high above ground on water towers, mountains or communications towers so that they are able to receive signals from long distances. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  43. Repeaters • Most amateur VHF and UHF radios are designed to work with repeaters, so understanding how they work is important to the Technician licensee. You’ll be learning a good deal more about repeaters as we go along. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  44. Repeater Identification • Because repeaters are amateur radio stations, they must identify, and most are set up to automatically identify every ten minutes when they are being used. They identify using the call sign of the owner, and the FCC says they ID in one of several ways. They can identify by using phone in English. (Note that when “phone” is used in amateur radio, it means a voice transmission – not a telephone!) Repeaters designed to retransmit amateur television signals may identify using a video image that conforms to the applicable video standard. Repeaters may also identify by sending their call sign in Morse code. This is probably the most common method. (See §97.119(b)) Release 1.0 – September 2006

  45. Check-Up Time! Now let’s try the questions from this group. You should make a note of any that you miss for later review. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  46. T2B01 • What must you transmit to identify your amateur station? • A. Your tactical ID • B. Your call sign • C. Your first name and your location • D. Your full name Release 1.0 – September 2006

  47. T2B01 Answer - B • §97.119(a) • (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel at the end of each communication, and at least every ten minutes during a communication, for the purpose of clearly making the source of the transmissions from the station known to those receiving the transmissions. No station may transmit unidentified communications or signals, or transmit as the station call sign, any call sign not authorized to the station. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  48. T2B02 • What is a transmission called that does not contain a station identification? • A. Unidentified communications or signals • B. Reluctance modulation • C. Test emission • D. Intentional interference Release 1.0 – September 2006

  49. T2B02 Answer - A • §97.119(a) • (a) Each amateur station, except a space station or telecommand station, must transmit its assigned call sign on its transmitting channel at the end of each communication, and at least every ten minutes during a communication, for the purpose of clearly making the source of the transmissions from the station known to those receiving the transmissions. No station may transmit unidentified communications or signals, or transmit as the station call sign, any call sign not authorized to the station. Release 1.0 – September 2006

  50. T2B03 • How often must an amateur station transmit the assigned call sign? • A. At the beginning of each transmission and every 10 minutes during communication • B. Every 10 minutes during communications and at the end of each communication • C. At the end of each transmission • D. Only at the end of the communication Release 1.0 – September 2006