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Chapter 4

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Chapter 4

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  1. Chapter 4 Account-based Security

  2. Objectives • Discuss how to develop account naming and security policies • Explain and configure user accounts • Discuss and configure account policies and logon security techniques • Discuss and implement global access privileges • Use group policies and security templates in Windows 2000 Server and Windows Server 2003 Guide to Operating System Security

  3. Account Naming • Provides orderly access to server and network resources • Enables administrators to monitor security: • Which users are accessing the server • What resources they are using • Establish conventions for account names • User’s actual name • User’s function Guide to Operating System Security

  4. Security Policies • Apply to all accounts or to all accounts in a particular directory service container • Affected elements: • Password security • Expiration period • Minimum length • Password recollection • Account lockout • Authentication method Guide to Operating System Security

  5. Creating User Accounts in Windows 2000 Professional • Typically installed with: • Administrator account • Guest account • To create and manage user accounts: • Start – Settings – Control Panel – Users and Passwords, or • Right-click My Computer – Manage – Local Users and Groups – Users Guide to Operating System Security

  6. Creating User Accounts in Windows XP Professional • Installed with: • Account that usually consists of user’s name • Administrator account • Guest account • HelpAssistant account for remote desktop help • Support accounts for Microsoft and computer manufacturer • To create and manage user accounts: • Start – Control Panel – User Accounts, or • Right-click My Computer – Manage – Local Users and Groups – Users Guide to Operating System Security

  7. Managing User Accounts in Windows XP Professional Guide to Operating System Security

  8. Creating User Accounts in Windows 2000 Server/Server 2003 • Installed with: • Administrator account • Guest account • Other accounts, depending on services installed on server • Create new accounts by entering account information and password controls • Local user account on a server that is not part of a domain • Account in the Active Directory Guide to Operating System Security

  9. Managing User Accounts in Windows 2000 Server Guide to Operating System Security

  10. Creating a New User • Complete name, user logon name, password, and password confirmation information • User must change password at next logon • User cannot change password • Password never expires • Account is disabled • Further configure associated properties Guide to Operating System Security

  11. General tab Address tab Account tab Profile tab Telephones tab Organization tab Member Of Dial-in Environment Sessions Remote Control Terminal Services Profile COM+ tab Account Properties in Windows Server 2003 Guide to Operating System Security

  12. Account Properties in Windows Server 2003 Guide to Operating System Security

  13. Account Tab Guide to Operating System Security

  14. Creating User Accounts inRed Hat Linux 9.x • Each user account is associated with a user identification number (UID) • Assign users with common access needs to a group via a group identification number (GID) Guide to Operating System Security

  15. Contents of Linux Password File (/etc/passwd) • Username • Encrypted password or reference to shadow file • UID and GID • Information about the user • Location of user’s home directory • Command that is executed as user logs on Guide to Operating System Security

  16. Linux Shadow File (/etc/shadow) • Available only to system administrator • Contains password restriction information • Minimum/maximum number of days between password changes • When password was last changed • When password will expire • Amount of time account can be inactive before access is prohibited Guide to Operating System Security

  17. Creating User Accounts and Groups in Linux • Use command-line commands • Create new user with useradd • Modify parameters with usermod • Delete accounts with userdel • Use Red Hat User Manger from GNOME desktop Guide to Operating System Security

  18. Creating Accounts with the Command Line Guide to Operating System Security

  19. Creating Accounts with Red Hat User Manager Guide to Operating System Security

  20. Creating User Accounts in NetWare 6.x • Use ConsoleOne tool Guide to Operating System Security

  21. Creating User Accounts inMac OS X (Continued) • Choose Accounts icon in System Preferences window • Name of account holder • Short name for logging on • Password • Password hint Guide to Operating System Security

  22. Creating User Accounts inMac OS X (Continued) • Tools that enable server management (Mac OS X Server) • Server Admin • Macintosh Manager Guide to Operating System Security

  23. Accounts Option in Mac OS X Guide to Operating System Security

  24. Mac OS X Logon Options • Automatically log on to specific account when computer is booted • Log on by viewing a name and password box, or by seeing a list of user accounts • Hide Restart and Shut Down buttons • Show password hint after three unsuccessful logon attempts Guide to Operating System Security

  25. Mac OS X Server • Tools • Server Admin • MacIntosh Manager Guide to Operating System Security

  26. Setting Account Policies and Configuring Logon Security • Place restrictions on passwords • Automatically lock out accounts after a specified number of unsuccessful logon attempts Guide to Operating System Security

  27. Guidelines for Building Strong Passwords Guide to Operating System Security

  28. Using Account Policies in Windows Server 2000/Server 2003 • Set up as part of group policy that applies to all accounts in an Active Directory container • Can also be configured for a local computer • Account policy options affect: • Password security • Account lockout Guide to Operating System Security

  29. Password Security Options in Windows Server 2000/Server 2003 • Enforce password history • Maximum password age • Minimum password age • Minimum password length • Password(s) must meet complexity requirements • Store password using reversible encryption Guide to Operating System Security

  30. Account Lockout Options in Windows Server 2000/Server 2003 • Account lockout duration • Account lockout threshold • Reset account lockout container after Guide to Operating System Security

  31. Account Security Options in Red Hat Linux 9.x • No formal account security policies • Enables configuration of security options associated with individual accounts (using Red Hat User Manager) • Stores security information in shadow file (/etc/shadow) as properties associated with accounts Guide to Operating System Security

  32. Account Password Configuration Options in Red Hat Linux • Setting an account to expire on a particular date • Locking a user account • Expiration of account passwords so that users have to reset them Guide to Operating System Security

  33. 9.x Red Hat Linux Account Password Configuration Guide to Operating System Security

  34. Using Account Templates in NetWare 6.x • Configure through user templates before accounts are created • Use ConsoleOne utility to create user templates Guide to Operating System Security

  35. Establishing Account Properties with User Template (NetWare 6.x) (Continued) • Home directory location and access rights to that directory • Requirement for a password • Minimum password length • Requirement that password be changed within specified interval of time • Grace period that limits number of times user can log in after password has expired Guide to Operating System Security

  36. Establishing Account Properties with User Template (NetWare 6.x) • Requirement that a new password be used each time the old one is changed • Time restrictions • Intruder detection capabilities • Limit on number of simultaneous connections • Workstation logon restrictions Guide to Operating System Security

  37. Intruder Detection inNetWare 6.x Guide to Operating System Security

  38. Using Global Access Privileges • Windows 2000 Server/Server 2003 • User rights govern user and administrative functions • NetWare 6.x • Uses access rights, applied in a different way, for more fine-tuned access functions • Role-based security establishes administrative roles for managing a server Guide to Operating System Security

  39. Windows Server 2000/Server 2003 User Rights (Continued) • Enable account or group to perform predefined tasks • Basic rights: access a server • Advanced: create accounts and manage server functions • Can be assigned to user accounts or to groups • Groups are more efficient (inherited rights) Guide to Operating System Security

  40. Windows Server 2000/Server 2003 User Rights (Continued) • Give server administrative security controls over who can access server and Active Directory resources • Two categories • Privileges • Manage server or Active Directory functions • Logon rights • Access accounts, computers, and services Guide to Operating System Security

  41. Windows Server 2000/Server 2003 Privileges (Continued) Guide to Operating System Security

  42. Windows Server 2000/Server 2003 Privileges (Continued) Guide to Operating System Security

  43. Windows Server 2000/Server 2003 Privileges (Continued) Guide to Operating System Security

  44. Windows Server 2000/Server 2003 Logon Rights Guide to Operating System Security

  45. Role-based Security inNetWare 6.x • Allocated according to administrative roles (managing tasks or network services) • DHCP Management • DNS Management • eDirectory • iPrint Management • License Management Guide to Operating System Security

  46. Using Group Policies in Windows Server 2000/Server 2003 • Enables standardization by setting policies in Active Directory or on local computer (eg, account policies, user rights, IPSec policies) • Evolved from Windows NT Server 4.0 concept of system policy • Use Poledit.exe to configure basic user account and computer parameters (domain-wide or specific) Guide to Operating System Security

  47. Differences Between System Policy and Group Policy Guide to Operating System Security

  48. Defining Characteristics of Group Policy • Can be set for a site, domain, OU, or local computer • Stored in group policy objects • Local and nonlocal GPOs Guide to Operating System Security

  49. Configuring Client Security Using Policies • Advantages to customizing settings used by clients • Improved security • Consistent working environment • Customize settings by configuring policies on Windows 2000/2003 servers that clients access • When client logs on, policies are applied Guide to Operating System Security

  50. Manually Configuring Policies for Clients • Use either: • Group Policy Snap-in (Windows 2000 Server) • Group Policy Object Editor Snap-in (Windows Server 2003) • Use Administrative Templates object under User Configuration in a group policy object to customize desktop settings for client computers Guide to Operating System Security