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Instruments – part 2

Instruments – part 2. www.lrn.dk/arnop.htm. ARNOP Flight Dispatch course. Precission Approach. ILS - Instrument Landing System PAR - Precision Approach Radar (Military) GCA - Ground-Controlled Approach (mostly military) (PAR = Precision) (ASR = Non precision).

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Instruments – part 2

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  1. Instruments – part 2 www.lrn.dk/arnop.htm ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  2. Precission Approach ILS - Instrument Landing System PAR - Precision Approach Radar (Military) GCA - Ground-Controlled Approach (mostly military) (PAR = Precision) (ASR = Non precision) ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  3. Precission Approach A precision approach provides both horizontal and vertical guidance to the runway. In other words, it's tells you if you're deviating to the left or right and it tells you if you're too high or too low, before you ever see the runway ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  4. DH / DA A decision height (DH) or decision altitude (DA) is a specified height or altitude in the precision approach at which a missed approach must be initiated if the required visual reference to continue the approach has not been acquired. This allows the pilot sufficient time to safely re-configure the aircraft to climb and execute the missed approach procedures while avoiding terrain and obstacles. ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  5. Instrument approaches generally involve five phases of flight: Arrival: where the pilot navigates to the Initial Approach Fix (IAF: a navaid or reporting point), and where holding can take place. Initial the phase of flight after the IAF, where the pilot commences the Approach: navigation of the aircraft to the Final Approach Fix (FAF), a position aligned with the runway, from where a safe controlled descent towards the airport can be initiated. Intermediate: an additional phase in more complex approaches that may beApproach required to navigate to the FAF. Approach phases ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  6. Final approach: between 4 and 12 NM of straight flight descending at a set rate (usually an angle of between 2.5 and 6, normally 3 degrees). Missed: an optional phase; should the required visual reference forApproach landing not have been obtained at the end of the final approach, this allows the pilot to climb the aircraft to a safe altitude and navigate to a position to hold for weather improvement or from where another approach can be commenced. Approach phases ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  7. ILS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  8. ILS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  9. ILS GP Glide path Vertical guidance.Tells you whether you are high, low or on glide path. GP is "slaved" to the LLZ frequency ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  10. ILS LLZ Localizer Horizontal guidance. Tells you whether you are left, right or on center line. ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  11. ILS categories ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  12. Back-beam localizer Non-precision approach using the localizer from the other end of the runway. LLZ approaches Localizer without GP This is also a non-precison approach E.g. NOTAM EKYT -- RWY 26 ILS GP U/S ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  13. ILS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  14. ILS Left: To the right and low Right: On glide slope and localizer ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  15. ILS approach plate ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  16. ILS approach plate ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  17. ILS markers OM: Outer marker, approx 5 NM from threshold MM: Middle marker, approx 0,6 NM from threshold ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  18. ILS markers ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  19. ILS markers ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  20. ILS markers ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  21. Precision approach radar (PAR) is a type of radar guidance system designed to provide lateral and vertical guidance to an aircraft pilot for landing, until the missed approach point is reached. Controllers monitoring the PAR displays observe each aircraft's position and issue instructions to the pilot that keep the aircraft on course during final approach. It is similar to an instrument landing system (ILS) but requires control instructions. GCA / PAR "on course, on glide path“ ”slightly above glidepath” "turn right 2 degrees" Mobile (Land/Air) Precision Approach Radar/GCA in Afghanistan ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  22. RADAR ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  23. RADAR Radio Detection and Ranging ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  24. The following figure shows the operating principle of a primary radar. The radar antenna illuminates the target with a microwave signal, which is then reflected and picked up by a receiving device. The electrical signal picked up by the receiving antenna is called echo or return. The radar signal is generated by a powerful transmitter and received by a highly sensitive receiver. RADAR ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  25. RADAR ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  26. ATC RADAR ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  27. To help improve the "visibility" of aircraft as radar targets, aircraft are equipped with little boxes called transponders. The transponder detects the radar sweep, and in response, generates its own very powerful return pulse. This 200-watt pulse makes the aircraft much easier to see on radar. Transponder modes Mode A: When the transponder receives a radar signal it sends back a transponder code (or "squawk code"). Mode C:Mode 3 paired with pressure altitude information Mode S: Mode A and C information and broadcast information about the aircraft to the Secondary Surveillance Radar (SSR) system, TCAS receivers on board aircraft and to the ADS-B SSR system. This information includes the call sign. ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  28. Weather RADAR ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  29. Weather RADAR ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  30. Attitude instruments ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  31. ADI (Attitude Direction Indicator ) ADI EADI (Electronic Attitude Direction Indicator) PFD (Primary Flight Display) ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  32. PFD (Primary Flight Display) PFD ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  33. HSI (Horizontal Situation Indicator ) HSI EHSI (Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator) ND (Navigation Display) ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  34. ND (Navigation Display) ND ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  35. Radio altimeter Radio altimeters generally only give readings up to 2,500‘ above ground level (AGL). Radar altimeters are frequently used by commercial aircraft for approach and landing, especially in low-visibility conditions and also automatic landings, allowing the autopilot to know when to begin the flare maneuver. Radar altimeters is also used for GPWS systems. A radar altimeter or simply RA measures altitude above the terrain presently beneath an aircraft. This type of altimeter provides the distance between the plane and the ground directly below it, as opposed to a barometric altimeter which provides the distance above a pre-determined datum e.g. QNH. ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  36. GPWS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  37. Ground Proximity Warning System GPWS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  38. Ground Proximity Warning System GPWS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  39. Traffic alert and Collision Avoidance System TCAS scans the vicinity by interrogating the transponders of other aircraft. It then uses the received transponder signals to compute distance, bearing and altitude relative to the own aircraft.When TCAS detects that an aircraft’s distance and closure rate becomes critical, TCAS generates aural and visual annunciations for the pilots. TCAS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  40. TCAS detects any aircraft equipped with a transponder flying in its vicinity, displays potential and predicted collision targets and issues vertical orders to de-conflict. It is normally independent of ground based ATC systems. Its detection capability is limited to 30nm and ±9900ft. The system comprises a single channel TCAS computer, 2 TCAS antennae, 2 mode S transponders (1 active, 1 standby), and a SSR/TCAS control panel. Traffic is only displayed when ND range scale is 40nm or less; range scale changes are demanded. TCAS interrogates the SSR of intruders and determines for each intruder its relative bearing, range and closure rate and its relative altitude if available. TCAS then computes the intruder path, its closest point of approach (F-pole) and tau (the estimated time) before F-pole. Any collision threats trigger aural and visual advisories. TCAS optimises vertical orders to ensure a sufficient path separation and minimal change in VS for considering all intruders. TCAS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  41. TCAS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  42. TCAS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  43. TA is a so-called Traffic Advisory. TAs are given to the pilot in form of the word TRAFFIC displayed in yellow on the ND, and the aural voice annunciation "traffic, traffic". This is not the highest alert level. Its purpose is first to call attention to a possible conflict. RA means Resolution Advisory, the highest alert level. Its purpose is to resolve a conflict by providing the pilot with aural and visual pitch commands. The pilot has to disengage the autopilot immediately as the escape maneouver has to be flown manually. Flight director commands as well as ATC advisories have to be ignored. The pitch command of an RA has always the highest priority. If a target is approaching at the same altitude:   “Climb, climb, climb!” -- or --   “Descend, descend, descend!” TCAS TA / RA ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  44. TCAS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  45. TCAS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  46. Flight guidance systems The MD-80 digital flight guidance system is a dual, autopilot, flight director and autothrottle system with fail passive autoland capability. It is designed for guidance throughout the full flight regimes, from takeoff through climb, cruise, descent and landing included the roll-out. ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  47. FMS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  48. A flight management system is a fundamental part of a modern aircraft in that it controls the navigation. The flight management system (FMS) is the avionics that holds the flight plan, and allows the pilot to modify as required in flight. The FMS uses various sensors to determine the aircraft's position. Given the position and the flight plan, the FMS guides the aircraft along the flight plan. The FMS is normally controlled through a small screen and a keyboard. The FMS sends the flight plan for display on the Navigation Display (ND). All FMS contain a navigation database. The navigation database contains the elements from which the flight plan is constructed. These are defined via the ARINC 424 standard. The navigation database (NDB) is normally updated every 28 days, in order to ensure that its contents are current. FMS ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  49. Area Navigation (RNAV) is a method of navigation that allows an aircraft to choose any course within a network of navigation beacons, rather than navigating directly to and from the beacons RNAV ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

  50. An Inertial Navigation System (INS) is a navigation aid that uses a computer and motion sensors to continuously track the position, orientation, and velocity (direction and speed of movement) of an aircraft without the need for external references INS All inertial navigation systems suffer from drift. Small errors in the measurement of acceleration and angular velocity are integrated into progressively larger errors in velocity, which is compounded into still greater errors in position The inaccuracy of a good-quality navigational system is normally fewer than 0.6 NM per hour in position and on the order of tenths of a degree per hour in orientation. ARNOP Flight Dispatch course

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