Evolution Chapter 16 Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Chapter 17 Evolution of Populations Chapter 18 Classification
Evolution Darwin’s Theory of Evolution Chapter 15
Overview • Theodosius Debzhansky, Russian Geneticist • “Nothing in biology makes sense, except in the light of evolution.” • What do you suppose he means by that?
Overview • Theodosius Debzhansky • “Nothing in biology makes sense, except in the light of evolution.” • Evolution establishes a mechanism the explain the descent of today’s millions of species from common ancestors • Evolution explains how existing species can change now and how new species can arise • Evolution explains the biodiversity we see today
Overview • The question biology must answer: • How did 5 to 10 million, and maybe as high as 100 million, species here today arise? • How is it that millions of species share common body plans?
Overview • Before we start with the content of Chapter 15, we need to set a foundation with three short topics • Essential scientific vocabulary • Relevance to today • The Catholic Church’s view of the theory of evolution
Essential Scientific Vocabulary • Fact – natural phenomenon repeatedly confirmed by observation. • Hypothesis - An explanation of one or more phenomena in nature that can be tested by observations, experiments, or both. • A prediction that can be tested. • To be considered scientific, a hypothesis must be falsifiable, meaning it can be proven to be incorrect.
Essential Scientific Vocabulary • Science – Develops explanations of the world by gathering evidence – data. • Data – Evidence is gathered by observation and experimentation that can be repeated by others. • Explanations – hypothesis– that continue to be supported by evidence are kept. • Hypothesis not supported by new evidence are discarded. • Science is not a system of beliefs.
Essential Scientific Vocabulary • Theory – well supported, often tested explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world. • Law– Description of how a natural phenomenon will occur under certain circumstances.
Essential Scientific Vocabulary • Theory may be defined by the nonscientific as…. • Speculation, guess, conjecture.. • Theoryis defined by science as… • well supported, often tested explanation of phenomena that have occurred in the natural world.
Essential Scientific Vocabulary • Evolution– Change over time, process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms. • Darwin coined this phrase to define evolution – descent with modification • process of change by which new species develop from preexisting species over time.
Essential Scientific Vocabulary • Evolution– That change in organisms results from genetic mutations and natural selection • Once the change is genetic, that change will pass from one generation to the next, and the next…
Evolution isn’t “just a theory.” • Everyday use of the word theory has a different meaning than the meaning used by science. • It is well supported by evidence and has not failed a test. • Click on image to reach a six minute narrated video. • Choose Quicktime http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/library/11/2/e_s_1.html
The Catholic View • What do you think? • Does the Catholic Church accept the theory of evolution by means of natural selection?
The Catholic View Why is evolution so controversial?
The Catholic View • Is the Theory of Evolution a threat to religious faith? • Can religious concepts be treated as science?
Evolution – Dr. Kenneth Miller and The Colbert Report http://www.millerandlevine.com/talks/colbert.html
The Catholic View • Faith - Belief in an idea even in the absence of evidence. • Requires no testing or experimentation. • Uses a different path to understanding. • Let’s look at home a scientist, who is also a Catholic, views evolution and theology.
Francisco J. Ayala, professor of biological sciences and of philosophy at the University of California, Irvine. • “…science is a very successful way of knowing, but not the only way. We acquire knowledge in many other ways, such as through literature, the arts, philosophical reflection, and religious experience. A scientific view of the world is hopelessly incomplete. Science seeks material explanations for material processes, but it has nothing definitive to say about realities beyond its scope. Once science has had its say, there remain questions of value, purpose, and meaning that are forever beyond science's domain, but belong in the realm of philosophical reflection and religious experience.” http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/evolution/religion/faith/statement_01.html
The Catholic View • From the 2004 document from the Vatican's International Theological Commission, which accepts, with Pope John Paul II, • "New knowledge," he said, "leads to the recognition of the theory of evolution as more than a hypothesis. It is indeed remarkable that this theory has been progressively accepted by researchers following a series of discoveries in various fields of knowledge.”
The Catholic View • “The convergence, neither sought nor fabricated, of the results of work that was conducted independently is in itself a significant argument in favor of this theory." • “If the origin of the human body comes through living matter which existed previously, the spiritual soul is created directly by God.”
The Catholic View • "With respect to the evolution of conditions favorable to the emergence of life, Catholic tradition affirms that, as the universal transcendent cause, God is the cause not only of existence but also of causes." Pope John Paul II 1996 address to the Pontifical Academy of Sciences:
Creationism and Intelligent Design Creationism and Intelligent Design • Claim to be science, but ultimately fail to meet the standards of science. • Presents an untestable hypothesis – that the origin of the physical universe is traced to a supernatural being. • Verifying the existence of a supernatural being is impossible. • Does not present data in support of evolution.
Creationism and Intelligent Design Teach both sides of a scientific theory? Why stop at evolution?
The Catholic View • So, explain to me your understanding of the Catholic Church’s view of the theory of evolution by means of natural selection.
The Public View • Only 4 in 10 Americans believe the Theory of Evolution. • Gallup, February, 2009 • New York City school tried to ban the word evolution • March, 2012
Why does evolution matter today? Antibiotic resistance Bed bugs Bird Flu
Appearance of antibiotic resistant bacteria Evolutions is happening now. You can see evolution working in the antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria, such as tuberculosis, sweeping across the globe.
Appearance of antibiotic resistant bacteria Bacterial Resistance
BED BUGS! http://video.msn.com/v/us/v.htm?g=cc02c12b-e0c0-47ac-8906-c4e7593b92ad&f=06/64
BED BUGS! http://video.msn.com/v/us/v.htm?g=cc02c12b-e0c0-47ac-8906-c4e7593b92ad&f=06/64
They’re back!! • “According to the New York City Department of Housing Preservation and Development, there were no complaints of bed bugs in fiscal year 2003 • 79 complaints in 2004 • 928 complaints in 2005 • 4,638 in 2006 • 6,889 in 2007” Schutt, B. Dark Banquet: Blood and the Curious Lives of Blood Feeding Creature, 2008
Why are bed bugs back? • Phylum Arthropoda • Family Cimicidae with three identified species that feed on blood of humans • Common bed bug, Cimex lectularis • Ectoparasitic • Natural habitat of bird nests and bat caves • The bed of humans is a close second
Why are bed bugs back? • Bed bugs common before World War II • Use of DDT, Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane an organochlorine insecticide, was effective against bed bugs. • First synthesized in 1874; rediscovered as insecticide in 1939 • DDT started losing its effectiveness against bed bugs by the 1950’s • DDT was banned in 1972; now we use malathion and lindane
Why are bed bugs back? • Please speculate why bed bugs are back
Evolution of the “Bird Flu” • “We're not even sure if viruses are alive — can they evolve? Definitely! To evolve by natural selection, all an entity needs is genetic variation, inheritance, selection, and time, all of which viruses have in spades. And this is the concern. The avian flu virus evolves rapidly and could easily evolve into a form that can be passed from human to human.” Understanding Evolution, Evolution and the Avian Flu, http://evolution.berkeley.edu/evolibrary/news/051115_birdflu
Conclusion • Evolution has not stopped; it continues today and everyday. • Bacteria evolve to become resistant to antibiotics. • Insects evolve to become resistant to insecticides. • Viruses evolve to infect other species.
To appreciate the history of life, you have to understand time Geologic Time
For Darwin himself to accept his own ideas that species change over time, there needed to be enough time Geologic Time
Lab, Geologic Timescale • The best geological evidence of his time showed the Earth was millions of years old • We know the Earth is 4.6 billion years old • More than enough time for evolution to work
Lab, Geologic Timescale • Build a geologic timescale in teams of three. • On a length of adding machine tape, using colored pencils, create a time scale of every Period and the PreCambiran, all the important biological events. • Make sure each event is placed in its proper place on a consistent scale – METRIC! • You chose the scale’s standard unit and calculate how much tape you need – keep it practical! • You make it colorful and attractive. • We will vote on best.