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Sensor Network Architectures

Sensor Network Architectures

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Sensor Network Architectures

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  1. Sensor Network Architectures muse

  2. Objectives • Be familiar with how application needs impact deployment strategies • Understand key benefits/costs associated with different topologies. • Understand key benefits/costs associated with homogeneous and heterogeneous node deployments muse

  3. Objectives (cont.) • Apply simple metrics to assess network connectivity • Understand common routing protocols • Synthesize these concepts to ascertain the energy requirements for various network topologies muse

  4. Outline • Deployment strategies • Network topologies • Connectivity and Coverage • Routing protocols • Example Application: Energy use for various topologies

  5. Deployment Strategies • Motivation • Application needs? Deployment

  6. Random Structured Random vs. Structured Deployment

  7. Incremental Over-deployment Incremental vs. Over-deployment Deployment

  8. Outline • Deployment strategies • Network topologies • Connectivity and Coverage • Routing protocols • Example Application: Energy use for various topologies

  9. Network Topologies • Motivation • Star – single hop • Flat mesh – multi-hop • Tiered – multi-hop Topologies

  10. Star Topologies

  11. Mesh Topologies

  12. Tiered Topologies

  13. Homogeneous Heterogeneous Node Capabilities Topologies

  14. Single hop Multi-hop Single vs. Multi-hop Topologies

  15. Outline • Deployment strategies • Network topologies • Connectivity and Coverage • Routing protocols • Example Application: Energy use for various topologies

  16. Connectivity • Motivation • Graph Theory Tools Connectivity

  17. Random Graph Model • G(n,R) Connectivity

  18. Graph Connectivity Connectivity

  19. Problem with Random Graph Model Propagation environments are not isotropic Connectivity

  20. K-connectivity Connectivity

  21. Approaches Costs Improving connectivity Connectivity

  22. Outline • Deployment strategies • Network topologies • Connectivity and Coverage • Routing protocols • Example Application: Energy use for various topologies

  23. Coverage • Motivation • Tools Coverage

  24. Voronoi Diagram Coverage

  25. K-coverage Coverage

  26. Example Coverage

  27. Problems with Coverage Metrics Coverage

  28. Topology Control Idea Motivation Topology Control

  29. Method 1: PEAS Topology Control

  30. Method 2: ACK Topology Control

  31. Outline • Deployment strategies • Network topologies • Connectivity and Coverage • Routing protocols • Example Application: Energy use for various topologies

  32. Routing protocols • Motivation • Metric-based • Diversity-based Routing protocols

  33. Greedy Forwarding Routing protocols

  34. ETX Metric Routing protocols

  35. Opportunistic (ExOR) Routing protocols

  36. Gradient-based Routing protocols

  37. Lifetime Load Lifetime and Load-balancing Routing protocols

  38. Data Mules Routing protocols

  39. Outline • Deployment strategies • Network topologies • Connectivity and Coverage • Routing protocols • Example Application: Energy use for various topologies

  40. Comparison: Single-hop vs. Double-hop Networking & Energy

  41. Scenario 2: Single-hop vs. Double-hop Networking & Energy

  42. Conclusions • Multi-hop networks promise broader coverage and robustness at the cost of increased complexity • Homogeneous node architectures simplify deployment strategies but may require more capable hardware • Node connectivity is dependent on the node placement and the communication channel muse

  43. Conclusions - 2 • Network coverage requirements may not coincide with network connectivity requirements • Routing schemes depend on defining an appropriate ‘cost’ metric • Network architectures drive node and system design and therefore energy and bandwidth requirements muse

  44. Want to learn more? • B. Krishnamachari, Networking Wireless Sensors, Cambridge Press (2005). • H. Karl and A. Willig, Protocols and Architectures for Wireless Sensor Networks, Wiley (2007).