Aviation Management CollegeAirport Management Ms.Zuliana Ismail ANNEX 14: AERODROMES
International Civil Aviation Organization’s (ICAO’s)Documents Annexes Lists Annex 1 Annex 2 Annex 3 Annex 4 Annex 5 Annex 6 Annex 7 Annex 8 Annex 9 Annex 10 Annex 11 Annex 12 Annex 14 Annex 13 Annex 15 Annex 16 Annex 17 Annex 18 AERODROMES
What is Aerodromes? • ‘Aerodromes’ • A defined area on land or water (including any buildings, installations and equipment) intended to be used either wholly or in part for the arrival, departure and surface movement of aircraft.
How Annex 14 come to be • ICAO adopted Aerodrome Standard And Recommended Practices (SARPs) in 1951 & designated it as Annex 14 • Many amendments since 1951 • 1990, Annex 14 split into 2 volumes • Vol. 1 - Aerodrome Design & Operations • Vol. 2 - Heliports • Signatories agree to accept by or to exceed the standards • If signatories choose to differ, they must file a difference with ICAO 4
Outlines Volume 1: Aerodrome Design and Operations • Chapter 1 – Airport Classification Codes and Design Standard • Chapter 2 & 3– Aerodrome data & Physical characteristics (RWY,TXW,APRON) • Chapter 4 – Obstacle restriction and removal • Chapter 5 , 6 & 7– Visual Aids and their Functions • Chapter 8 – Electrical Systems • Chapter 9 – Aerodrome operational services, equipment and installations • Chapter 10 – Aerodrome maintenance 5
Why Need to Learn Annex 14? • Annex 14 provides the basic specification for aerodrome design and operations. • Pilots and airlines can operate to aerodromes with a similar standard or command. • Miscommunication can be avoided • Safety for the travelling public • Knowledge of aerodrome standards is necessary for all personnel who are charged with duties associated with regulation and operation of aerodromes.
Standard And Recommended Practices (SARPs) • Standards are identified by the verb <shall> Example:The systems shall be suitable for both day and night operations. and are mandatory.
Standard And Recommended Practices (SARPs) Example:Recommendation.— The installation setting angles for high-intensity obstacle lights, Types A and B, should be in accordance with Table 6-2. and are only recommendations Recommended Practices are identified by the verb<should> 8
Importance • What should be the overall geometric layout of runways, taxiways, and aprons? • What size of aircraft should the airfield be designed for? • How should the construction of airside facilities be phased? • How much land should be acquired or reserved for a new airport?
Chapter 1 General Aerodrome Reference Code Type of Approach
Airport Classification Codes • Designed as a planning tool • Based on two elements • Aerodrome reference code (based on a/c) • Type of approach (based on runways :Non-Instrument (NI), Non-Precision (NP), Precision (P). • Example: 3C NP Type of approach Aerodrome reference code
The Aerodrome Coding Concept • Determine by two factors: • Code number (1,2..,4) to reflect aircraft operating performance in terms of balanced field length of runways • Airplane reference field length (RFL) • Code letter(A, B, ..,F) to reflect the aircraft physical dimensions that have a bearing on the physical characteristics of aerodrome facilities • Wing span (WS) and • Outer main gear wheel span (OMG)
Airplane reference Field Length (RFL) • The minimum field length required for take-off at maximum certificated take-off mass, sea level, standard atmospheric conditions, still air an zero runway slope, as shown in the appropriate aeroplane field manual
Wing Span (WS) and Outer Main Gear (OMG) • Wing Span (WS)= the maximum extent across the wings of an aircraft • Outer main gear wheel span (OMG)=The distance between the outside edges of the main gear wheels.
ExerciseWhat is the AR Code for Boeing 747-400 & Airbus A380 ???? Boeing 747-400 RFL=2990m WS=64.4m OMG=12.4m Airbus A380 RFL=>3300m WS=79.8m OMG=14.34m
Types of Runway Approach • Non-Instrument Runway (NI) A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using visual approach procedures • Instrument Runway A runway intended for the operation of aircraft using instrument approach procedures • Non-Precision Runway (NP) An instrument runway served by visual aids and a non-visual aid providing at least lateral guidance adequate for a straight-in approach • Precision Runway (P) – Allow operations with a decision height and visibility corresponding to Category 1, or II, or III
Runway Approach Precision Runway (P) Non-Instrument Runway (NI) Aiming point Touchdown zone Threshold Non-Precision Runway (NP)
Runway Terminology • Runway Threshold: Beginning of runway for landing. • Touchdown zone: The portion of a runway, beyond the threshold, where it is intended landing aeroplanes first contact the runway. • Aiming point: serves as a visual aiming point for a landing aircraft.
Precision Runway (P) Categories • Category I • An instrument runway served by Instrument Landing Systems (ILS) and/or Microwave Landing Systems (MLS) for lateral/vertical guidanceand visual aids intended for operating : • Decision Height (DH) more than 60m • Visibility more than 880 m • Runway Visual Range (RVR) more than550 m • Most common of P runways • Category II • Same as Cat I except Cat II has DH more than 30m but less than 60m and RVR more than 350 m. • Category III • Same as Cat I except Cat III has DH less than 30m and RVR less than 350 m.
The importance of airport classification codes • Designed as a planning tool. • Physical dimensions of runways, taxiways, & aprons (width, separation between runways, neighboring taxiways, aprons and building, separation between parallel taxiways and etc) depend on the aerodrome reference code selected for design purposes.
Review • Specify the airport classification codes when the Airbus A 380 landing at the Precision type Runway.
Reviews • What is the different between a non-instrument runway from a non-precision runway? • Aerodrome reference codes are based on two elements. What are they?
Chapter 2 & 3 Runway Designation Numbers Runways, Taxiways & Apron Characteristics Declared Distances
Overview • Runways (i.e., orientation, length and width; shoulders, runway strip, RWY turn pads, Runway end safety area) • Clearways • Stopways • Taxiways • Holding Bays • Aprons
1. Runways • A defined rectangular area on a land aerodrome prepared for the landing and take-off of aircraft. • Length and strength depend on the size of aircraft to operate, the weather and the presences of obstacles. • The bigger the aircraft the longer the runway (take-off and landing distances) • The hotter the weather the longer the runway • The higher the altitude the longer the runway
Runways Length • For aircraft weights below approximately 90,718 kg, a runway length ~ 1,829 m • Larger aircraft (Boeing 747, 767, 777, and 787; Airbus A300, A330, A340, A350, and A380; McDonnell Douglas DC-10 or MD-11; and the Lockheed L1011) will usually require runway length at least 2,438 m.
Runway Characteristics • Primary runway should be adequate to meet operational requirements of critical aircraft • Length of runway corrected for temperature, , humidity and surface • Length or runway need not be for maximum mass operations of critical aircraft • Similar rationale for secondary runway
RWY Designation Numbers • Identified by a two digit number according to their magnetic heading. Example: RWY with a magnetic heading of 340° is marked as RWY 34. • Each runway can be used in either direction, and hence has two numbers, each 18 apart. Example: (34-18=16), so the other runway marked as RWY 16 • Measured clockwise from the magnetic heading. • Each digit is pronounced separately for clarity in radio communications. Example: Runway 36 is pronounced as Three Six. • For two parallel RWYs, R for Right and L for Left are added to distinguish btw the RWS. • For multiple runways each runway is identified by Left (L), Center (C) and Right (R).
Munich Airport: Two Parallel Runways
Recommendation.— The width of a runway should be not less than the appropriate dimension specified in the following tables Runways Width
Exercise • Define the required runway width for the Boeing 747-400 and Airbus A 380?
Runways Strength • A runway should be capable of withstanding the traffic of airplanes the runway is intended to serve. • The surface of a paved runway shall be so constructed as to provide good friction characteristics when the runway is wet. • So that do not affect the airplane during the take-off or landing (no loss in friction)
Runway shoulders • Only for the airplane with Code Letter D, E and F • Width of runway shoulders — 60 m for the code letter of airplane is D or E; and — 75 m for the code letter of airplane is F.
Clearway • A defined area prepared for an airplane so that it may make a portion of its initial climb to a specified height
Stopways • A defined area on the ground prepared for an airplane so take it can be stopped in the case of an abandoned take-off
Declared distances • For any given runway, four declared distances defined by ICAO are • take off run available TORA • take-off distance available TODA • accelerate-stop distance available ASDA • landing distance available LDA
TORA: Take-off run available TORA is defined as the length of runway available for the ground run of an aeroplane taking off. TORA = Full Length of RW
TODA: Take-off distance available • The length of the take-off run available (TORA) plus the length of the clearway, if provided TODA =TORA + CWY
ASDA: Accelerate-stop distance available • ASDA is defined as the length of the take-off run available plus the length of any SWY. Any CWY is not involved. • ASDA = TORA + SWY
LDA: Landing distance available LDA is defined as the length of runway available for the ground run of a landing aeroplane. LDA = Length of RW (if threshold is not displaced.)
Runway Strip A defined area including the runway and stopway. • To reduce the risk of damage to aircraft running off a runway ; and • To protect aircraft flying over it during take-off or landing operations Figure: Composition of Runway Strip
Length of Runway Strips • A runway should be symmetrically included in a runway strip. • A runway strip should extend beyond each end of the runway for a distance of at least: — 60 m [ code number 2, 3 or 4]; — 60 m [code number 1 instrument runway]; and — 30 m [code number 1 non-instrument runway] .
Why Displaced Threshold ? • Due to the presence of obstacles on the approach path make the beginning section of runway unsuitable for landings. • It is marked with white paint arrows that lead up to the beginning of the landing portion of the runway.