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Chapter 1: The Study of Human Development

Chapter 1: The Study of Human Development

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Chapter 1: The Study of Human Development

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  1. Chapter 1: The Study of Human Development Dr. Arra PSY 231

  2. Focus: Victor, the Wild Boy of Aveyron On January 8, 1800, a naked boy appeared on the outskirts of a village in the province of Aveyron, France. He neither spoke nor responded to speech, and it seemed clear that he had either lost his parents or been abandoned. (12-years-old) Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Victor, The Wild Boy • Jean-Marc Itard, psychiatrist • Conditioning, behavior mod., imitation • 5- years sdadsdsdsdsdsdsdsdsad

  4. Victor, the Wild Boy • Learned names of objects • Could read and write simple sentences • Could express desires, obey commands • Showed affection and some emotions • Never learned to speak • Remained focused on his own wants and needs • Did not enjoy social interactions • Died in his early 40’s sdadsdsdsdsdsdsdsdsad

  5. What’s Your View? • Was it right for a scientist like Itard to try to modify Victor’s development? • Dangers ? • Benefits? • Safeguards to protect Victor’s welfare Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. How the Study of Human Development Evolved • Early Approaches • baby biographies • Darwin and theory of evolution (natural selection, survival of the fittest, genetic mutations, ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny) • Nature vs. Nurture Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How the Study of Human Development Evolved • Studying the Life Span • Life span development: the concept of a lifelong process of development that can be studied scientifically • Continual development over time Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Human Development Today: An Introduction to the Field • Goals • description • explanation • prediction • modification • Practical applications Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Human Development Today: An Introduction to the Field • Developmental Processes: Change and Stability • quantitative change – changes in number or amount • qualitative change – change in structure or organization (e.g., Piaget’s stage theory; change from a larvae to a butterfly) Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human Development Today: An Introduction to the Field • Domains of Development • physical development • cognitive development • psychosocial development – emotions, relationships, personality • development is a unified process Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Development Today: An Introduction to the Field • Periods of the Lifespan • social construction • eight periods Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Influences on Development • universal processes of development (Stage Theories) • individual differences (at what age people reach those stages) Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Influences on Development • Heredity – genetics (nature) • Environment - nurture • Maturation – physical and behavioral changes due to development of body and brain Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Influences on Development • Major Social and Historical Influences • family • nuclear family – 1 or 2 parents and their children • extended family – parents, children, other relatives (sometimes live in house) • Benefits of extended families sdadsdsdsdsdsdsdsdsad

  15. Influences on Development • Socioeconomic Status (SES) – describes an individual through a combination of: • Social factors • Economic factors • Income, education, occupation sdadsdsdsdsdsdsdsdsad

  16. Influences on Development • Major Social Influences • Culture • Culture – a society’s way of life including their customs, beliefs, traditions, values, language • Culture is passed on from generation to generation; socially embedded/social context • Cultural groups can be a mix of ethnic groups Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Influences on Development • Ethnic Group • Subculture united by their ancestry, race, country of origin • Several ethnic groups can make up a cultural group sdadsdsdsdsdsdsdsdsad

  18. Influences on Development • Konrad Lorenz (Ducklings) • Imprinting- a period in which a young animal forms an attachment to the first moving object it sees • Critical period – specific time when a given event is most likely to occur; there is a fixed window of opportunity for the organism to acquire the behavior Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Influences on Development • Examples of Critical Periods • Language • Vision in cats • Attachment in ducklings to mother • Malnourished children during critical periods of childhood have problems with physical development • Certain drugs or X-rays during pregnancy may effect brain, or ear, or eye development sdadsdsdsdsdsdsdsdsad

  20. Lifespan Developmental Approach • Development is lifelong. • Development involves both gain and loss. • Relative influences of biology and culture shift over the lifespan. • Development is modifiable. • plasticity • Development is influenced by the historical and cultural context. Copyright (c) 2004 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

  21. Practically Speaking Is There a Critical Period for Language Acquisition?