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Human Growth and development

Human Growth and development. Four areas of human development:. Physical Cognitive Motor or skills development Social development Don’t write down..on next slides coming…. Physical Development. Growth and development of the body’s muscles, bones, energy systems, and the nervous system.

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Human Growth and development

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  1. Human Growth and development

  2. Four areas of human development: • Physical • Cognitive • Motor or skills development • Social development • Don’t write down..on next slides coming…

  3. Physical Development • Growth and development of the body’s muscles, bones, energy systems, and the nervous system

  4. Cognitive • ► Individual’s ability to interpret and process information • ► Emotional development • ► Development of person’s self-concept or awareness of one’s self

  5. Motor or Skills Development • ► Combination of cognitive and physical development • ► Humans develop ability to perform a wide range of tasks

  6. Social Development • ► Development of relationships with peers, friends, relatives, adults, and others in the “outside world”

  7. Age and Physical Development • Chronological Age • Age measured in years, months, and days

  8. Skeletal Age • Age indicated by physical maturity of skeleton Factors such as nutrition, disease, and injury can cause lag

  9. ► Developmental Age • Age expresses in one’s ability to perform tasks

  10. Body Types and Development • Endomorph, Ectomorph and Mesomorph

  11. Stages of Human Growth and Development Infancy Toddler • Double birth weight in 6 months and triple it in a year • Considerable muscular development • ► Gains in ability to perform basic tasks • Grasp, crawl, pull to stand, walk • ► Most master walking by age two • ► …. running by age three

  12. Why can’t a 6 month old walk? • Because it hasn’t learned?? • NO! • Babies walk when their muscles, bones and nervous system are ready to walk • The child will DEVELOP this skill when they are ready • Growth, maturation and development set LIMITS on what can be learned

  13. Scooter trouble-Why?

  14. Childhood • ► From six to ten years the body “stabilizes” • Uniform relationship between bone and tissue growth and development occurs • ► Rapid stage of growth from four to six years • ► Often age at which child is introduced to sport

  15. Puberty • Growth (physical and psychological) speeds up during this phase • ► “Growth spurt” • ► Marked changes in physical appearance

  16. Adulthood • Most growth has taken place • ► Other physical changes • Weight gain, reduced oxygen capacity, rise in blood pressure, joint deterioration • ► Diminished exercise, diet and nutrition issues, increased stress and responsibilities

  17. Different Rates of Growth forDifferent Body Parts • 1. Cephalo-caudal Sequence • (head) (toe) • Growth progresses fastest in the head, followed by the trunk, and then the extremities

  18. 2. Proximo-distal Sequence • Body movements that originate closer to the centre of the body seem to develop earlier than those that originate further from the centre • Ex. Babies can swing arms before they can hold a pencil

  19. Your turn… • All humans pass through these stages as the age and mature, though rates of development will vary. What are some factors that might affect one’s rate of motor development? • You are University students don’t just sit there!!!

  20. Factors Affecting Physical Growth • Glandular/Hormonal Activity • Heredity • Injury • Nutrition/Diet • Physical Activity • Socio cultural Factors • Physical Environment

  21. Piaget’s 4 stages of Cognitive Development • Make your own notes on all 4 (chapter 18) • Know these 4 for the exam: 1. Sensorimotor 2. Preoperational Stage 3. Concrete Operational 4. Formal Operational • Cognitive development is defined as the changes that take place in a person’s ability to interpret and process information, as well as alterations in their emotional development, and the introduction and establishment of a person’s self concept

  22. Stages of Movement/Motor Skills Development • Reflexive Responses to Rudimentary Movements • General Fundamental Skills • Specific Fundamental Movements • Specialized (Sport Related Movements) • Need to copy Triangle Diagram..Gross motor tasks of sports all follow this triangle

  23. 1. Reflexive Movements • Infancy (ages 0 to 4months) • Reflexes present at birth: • Rooting reflex (turn head to stimulus) • Finger grasp • Sucking Reflex • Moro Reflex (startle reflex, baby will spread arms, neck and legs when startled)

  24. 2.Rudimentary Movement Phase (birth-2 years) • Basic stability, locomotor and manipulative activities (head and neck control/sitting) • 3 categories of movement skills…..start of sport…yeah!!! • A. Stability..balancing • B. Locomotor..moving..crawling…walking • C. Manipulative …handling objects..grasping..kicking..throwing

  25. 3. Fundamental Movement Phase 2-7 • Evolution of skills from rudimentary phase • Not yet sport related • Confident running, jumping, throwing, catching

  26. 4. Sport Related Movement Phase • Application of prior skills to specific sports • A. General – understands rules…Develop conscience and value judgements • B. Specific –sophisticated form of skill and accuracy/complex games/sense of independence and social responsibility • C. Specialized- select few/elite • Some never specialize

  27. Your turn..with a partner/max three people in a group: Activity #1 • Looking at the last phase (Sport related) • Pick a sport of your choice and describe the modifications you would employ when coaching or teaching athletes in each of the 3 stages of sport related skill development Fold 1 piece of paper into even squares and only hand in 1 sheet for marking. Include names. Pick partners wisely!! Application mark

  28. Let’s get started…headings • Ask yourself: How would I modify… • Equipment? • # Of Players? • Environment? • Strategy? • Rules? • Level /degree of competition? • Degree of specialization? (Other activities) • Time commitment • Emphasis (What is the most important goal?)

  29. Activity #2 Next Communication Mark • You are going to ADAPT Sport Skills to Match Development Levels • If humans adapt 4 ways; physically, cognitively, in terms of the motor skills they acquire and socially..then coaches need to adapt training methods • Your task is to address these 4 areas

  30. Adapting Sport Skills • You will modify instructions to the indicated age level below. (ex. modify equipment rules)

  31. For the next ones assume that all of the athletes have come “through the ranks” of the various age levels- that is a tennis player at Level 2 (age 5-7) has already participated at Level 1

  32. Easy marks continue…

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