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Human Growth and Development

Human Growth and Development

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Human Growth and Development

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  1. Human Growth andDevelopment Chapter Seven The First Two Years: Psychosocial Development PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College Revised by Jenni Fauchier, Metropolitan Community College

  2. Theories About Early Psychosocial Development Importance of parents and their contribution to emotional growth

  3. Connects biosocial and psychosocial development Psychoanalytic Theory

  4. Freud: Oral and Anal Stages Oral Stage—1st stage, where infant obtains pleasure through sucking and biting Anal Stage—2nd stage, where anus becomes main source of gratification, i.e., bowel movements and the control of them

  5. 1st Stage—Trust vs. Mistrust basic needs need to be met with consistency, continuity, and sameness 2nd Stage—Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt basic desire to gain self-rule over their own actions and bodies and to feel ashamed if it doesn’t happen Erikson: Trust and Autonomy

  6. Behaviorism Infant’s emotions and personality are molded as parents reinforce or punish child’s spontaneous behavior social learning adds to personality formation social referencing strengthens learning by observation

  7. Cognitive Theory Individual’s thoughts and values determine perspective on the world Working model—set of assumptions used to organize perceptions and experiences

  8. Epigenetic Theory Each child is born with a genetic predisposition to develop certain traits that affect emotional development

  9. Temperament • Temperament—“constitutionally based individual differences in emotion, motor, and attentional reactivity and self-regulation.” • inhibited • uninhibited • epigenetic—though personality traits not learned, environment affects their expression

  10. activity level rhythmicity approach-withdrawal adaptability intensity of reaction threshold of responsiveness quality of mood distractibility attention span Research on Temperament: Nine Characteristics

  11. Temperament and Caregiving Inhibited vs. Uninhibited responsive care and encouragement can help inhibited children become less so Match between parent and child goodness of fit

  12. Sociocultural Theory Emphasizes the many ways social context can have impact on infant-caregiver relationship If social context changes, child can change

  13. Emotional Development in Infancy In the first 2 years of emotional development, infants progress from simple reactions to complex patterns of social awareness

  14. The First Year Newborns’ first discernable emotions distress contentment Later emotions (after first weeks) anger fear, expressed clearly by stranger warinessandseparation anxiety

  15. The Second Year Fear and anger typically decrease Laughing, crying: more discriminating New emotions appear pride shame embarrassment guilt

  16. Self-Awareness Foundation for emotional growth realization of individual distinctions At about 5 months begin developing a sense of self apart from mother 15-18 months the “Me-self” rouge experiment

  17. Pride and Shame Self-awareness becomes linked with self-concept early on Negative comments more likely to lead to less pride or shame Own pride can be more compelling than parental approval

  18. Social connections help us understand human emotions The Development of Social Bonds

  19. Synchrony Synchrony—coordinated interaction; attunement Helps infants learn to express own feelings Imitation is pivotal Becomes more elaborate and more frequent with time Learning through play playful interactions by both partners important for both to be responsive

  20. Enduring emotional connection Proximity-seeking behaviors Contact-maintaining behaviors Attachment

  21. Bowlby and Ainsworth Secure—relationship of trust and confidence that provides comfort, assurance, and secure base Secure and Insecure Attachment

  22. Insecure—relationship that is unpredictable or unstable avoidant: one person tries to avoid any connection with another resistant/ambivalent: anxiety and uncertainly keep one person clinging to another Secure and Insecure Attachment, cont.

  23. Measuring Attachment Strange Situation—lab procedure to measure attachment; observed are exploration of the toys (caregiver present) reaction to caregiver’s departure reaction to caregiver’s return disorganized behavior—neither secure nor insecure attachment—marked by inconsistent behavior of caregiver and infant toward each other

  24. Insecure Attachment as a Warning Sign Stressed mother (although not always an indicator) Mother too withdrawn Inconsistent behavior of mother (conflicting messages sent by her) Insecure attachments repairable

  25. Social Referencing Looking to others for cues Referencing Mom Look to mother for comfort Mother’s tone and expression can become guide to how to react to unfamiliar or ambiguous event

  26. Fathers play more than mothers Infants look to fathers for fun and physical play Physically active play with fathers may contribute to development of social skills and emotional expression Physically active play with fathers helps children master motor skills and develop muscle control Referencing Dad

  27. Cultural Differences Fathers, single mothers, grandparents, and cultures with other family structures still provide needed referencing Father’s involvement can benefit later development of child raise mother’s self-confidence and two parents working together are better able to meet infant’s needs than either alone

  28. Infant Day Care Almost all infants cared for by people other than parents part of the time Specifics vary from culture to culture The older the child and the more money the family has, the more likely possibility of day care

  29. Family day care Center care Day care generally beneficial High-quality programs include adequate attention to each infant encouragement of sensorimotor exploration and language development attention to health and safety well-trained professional caregivers Infant Day-Care

  30. Infant Day Care, cont. Cognitive and biosocial development are more advanced by day care than at home Poor day care has detrimental effects

  31. Conclusions in Theory and Practice No single theory stands out as best interpretation of developments during first 2 years Do not know the extent to which positive influence can compensate for negative one

  32. Conclusions in Theory and Practice, cont. Parental attentiveness crucial to synchrony, attachment, and social referencing. In dealing with children with problems, need a practical rather than theoretical approach that focuses on their specific issues