Human Growth and Development Chapter Four Prenatal Development and Birth PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College Revised by Jenni Fauchier, Metropolitan Community College
From Zygote to Newborn • Germinal period—first 14 days • Embryonic period—3rd through 8th weeks • Fetal period—9th week through birth
Germinal: The First 14 Days • Zygote divides and keep dividing (at least though 3rd doubling they are the same) • At this stage (8 cells) differentiation begins • early “stem” cells take on distinct characteristics • they gravitate to locations, foreshadowing the type of cells they will become
Germinal: The First 14 Days, cont. • At about a week after conception the multiplying cells separate into two masses • outer layer forms a shell (later the placenta) and the inner cells from a nucleus (later the embryo) • first task of out cells to achieve implantation— embed themselves into the nuturant environment of the uterus • 60% of all natural conceptions fail to implant; 70% of in vitro procedures fail to implant
Embryo: From the Third to the Eighth Week • First sign of human structure: thin line down the middle (22 days) that becomes the neural tube, which eventually forms the central nervous system, including brain and spinal column • fourth week • head begins to take shape • heart begins with a miniscule blood vessel that begins to pulsate
Embryo: From the Third to the Eighth Week, cont. • fifth week • arm and leg buds appear • tail-like appendage extends from the spine • eighth week • embryo weighs 1 gram and is 1 inch long • head more rounded; face formed • all basic organs and body parts (but for sex) present • 20% of all embryos spontaneously abort now
Fetus: From the Ninth Week Until Birth • Called a fetus from 9th week on
Third Month • Sex organs take shape (Y cell sends signal to male sex organs; for females, no signal occurs) • genital organs fully shaped by 12th week • All body parts present • Fetus can move every part of body • Fetus weighs 3 ounces and is 3 inches long
Middle Three Months: Preparing to Survive • Heartbeat stronger • Digestive and excretory systems develop more fully • Impressive brain growth (6X in size and responsive) • new neurons develop (neurogenesis) • synapses—connections between neurons (synaptogenesis)
Middle Three Months: Preparing to Survive, cont. • Age of viability—age at which preterm baby can possibly survive (22 weeks) • 26 weeks survival rate about 50% • brain maturation critical to viability • weight critical to viability • 28 weeks survival rate about 95%
Final Three Months— Viability to Full Term • Maturation of the respiratory and cardiovascular systems • critical difference • Gains weight—4.5 lbs. in last 10 weeks
Risk Reduction • Despite complexity, most babies are born healthy • Most hazards are avoidable • Teratology—study of birth defects • teratogens—broad range of substances that can cause environmental insults that may cause prenatal abnormalities or later learning abilities
Determining Risk • Risk analysis—weighing of factors that affect likelihood of teratogen causing harm
Timing of Exposure • Critical period—in prenatal development, the time when a particular organ or other body part is most susceptible to teratogenic damage • entire embryonic period is critical
Amount of Exposure • Dose and/or frequency • Threshold effect—teratogen relatively harmless until exposure reaches a certain level
Amount of Exposure, cont. • Interaction effect—risk of harm increases if exposure to teratogen occurs at the same time as exposure to another teratogen or risk
Genetic Vulnerability • Genetic susceptibilities: product of genes combined with stress • Folic-acid deficiency may cause neural- tube defects • occurs most commonly in certain ethnic groups and less often in others • Males are more genetically vulnerable
Specific Teratogens • No way to predict risk on an individual basis • Research has shown possible effects of most common and damaging teratogens • AIDS and alcohol extremely damaging • pregnant women with AIDS transmit it to their newborns; high doses of alcohol cause FAS; alcohol + drug use increase risk to developing organism
Low Birthweight Low Birthweight (LBW) less than 5 1/2 lbs. grows too slowly or weighs less than normal more common than 10 years ago second most common cause of neonatal death Preterm birth occurs 3 or more weeks before standard 38 weeks
Small for Gestational Age (SGA) maternal illness maternal behavior cigarette smoking (25% of SGA births) maternal malnutrition poorly nourished before and during pregnancy underweight, undereating, and smoking tend to occur together Low Birthweight, cont.
Factors that affect normal prenatal growth quality of medical care, education, social support, and cultural practices Low Birthweight, cont.
The Birth Process Hormones in mother’s brain signals process Contractions begin: strong and regular at 10 minutes apart average labor for first births is 8 hours
Assessment—Apgar scale five factors, 2 points each heart rate breathing color muscle tone reflexes score of 7 or better: normal score under 7: needs help breathing score under 4: needs urgent critical care The Newborn’s First Minutes
Variations Parents Reaction preparation for birth, physical and emotional support, position and size of fetus, and practices of mother’s culture Medical Attention birth in every developed nation has medical attention 22% of births in U.S. are cesarean section removal of fetus via incisions in mother’s abdomen and uterus is medical intervention always necessary?
Birth Complications Cerebral Palsy—brain damage causing difficulties in muscle control, possibly affecting speech or other body movements Anoxia—lack of oxygen that, if prolonged, can cause brain damage or death
First Intensive Care . . . Then Home At the Hospital many hospitals provide regular massage and soothing stimulation; ideally, parents share in caregiving At Home complications, e.g., minor medical crises cognitive difficulties may emerge, but high-risk infants can develop normally
Strong family support (familia) Fathers play a crucial role may help wives abstain from drugs or alcohol can reduce maternal stress Parental alliance—commitment by both parents to cooperate in raising child helps alleviate postpartum depression Mothers, Fathers and a Good Start
Parent-infant bond—strong, loving connection that forms as parents hold, examine, and feed their newborn immediate contact not needed for this to occur Mothers, Fathers and a Good Start, cont.