Human Growth andDevelopment Chapter Thirteen The School Years: Psychosocial Development PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College Revised by Jenni Fauchier, Metropolitan Community College
Increased Competence and more responsible and independent The Child’s Emotions and Concerns
Freud: Latency emotional drives quieter, psychosexual needs repressed, unconscious conflicts submerged Erikson: Industry vs. Inferiority children try to master skills valuable in own culture social worlds beyond family contribute to sense of industry or inferiority Theories of Development During Middle Childhood
Social cognitive theory—the perspective that highlights how school-age children advance in learning, cognition, and culture, building on maturation and experience to become more articulate, insightful, and competent Theories of Development During Middle Childhood, cont.
Sociocultural theory looks at cultures and subcultures Epigenetic theory considers how inherited impulses lead to social maturity Theories of Development During Middle Childhood, cont.
All 5 major theories describe the child of ages 7 to 11 as competent, eager, manageable outside the home Worldwide, cultures recognize this maturity and give the child more independence and responsibility Theories of Development During Middle Childhood, cont.
Middle childhood is the time when children learn whatever skills they will need as adults Self-understanding comes at a price lower self-esteem greater self-criticism and self-consciousness Self-development affected by relationships with parents and peers Understanding Self and Others
Social comparison—the tendency to assess one’s abilities, achievements, social status, and other attributes by measuring them against those of other people, especially one’s peers children often feel personally at fault for their shortcomings Cultural influences are reflected many social groups teach children not to be “too outstanding” Understanding Self and Others, cont.
Peer group—aggregate of individuals of roughly the same age and social status who play, work, or learn together The Peer Group
Peers become increasingly important developmentalists believe that getting along with peers is crucial during middle childhood being rejected is a precursor for other problems children depend on each other for companionship, advice, self-validation peer partners must learn to negotiate, share, compromise, and defend each other and themselves certain amount of aggression, counter-aggression, and reconciliation expected
Developmentalists are troubled if children have no free time to spend with each other child may have to come straight home from school child may be in after-school programs due to parents work children prefer to choose their own activities with their own friends The Peer Group, cont.
Peer Group Subculture special vocabulary, rules of behavior, dress codes an “in” group and an “out” group Friendship
Friendships become more important forum for self disclosure = Mutual dependency become more choosy in picking friends best friends likely to be same in sex, age, ethnicity, and socioeconomic status more intense, intimate, and demanding Friendship, cont.
Unpopular Children neglected children receive little attention, but not necessarily disliked by peers aggressive-rejected—rejected by peers because of confrontational behavior withdrawn-rejected—rejected by peers because they are timid and anxious for rejected, situation can worsen over time Friendship, cont.
Bullying is universal Bullies are not necessarily rejected, and victims are not always odd in appearance or background, although they are always rejected Bullies and Their Victims
Bullying—repeated, systematic effort to inflict harm physical attack, taunting, teasing, name calling Bullying once thought to be a normal part of children’s play with few long-term consequences Types of Bullying
Bully-victims—bullies who are or have been victims of bullying; also called provocative victims, they are minority of victims can be aggressive-rejected children Bullies and victims usually of same gender Types of Bullying, cont.
Boys vs. Girls male bullies above average in size female bullies above average in assertiveness victims tend to be less assertive and physically weaker (boys) or shyer (girls) Types of Bullying, cont.
Studies show that bullying is widespread and serious in all nations Norway, Britain, Japan, Italy, U.S. Bullying occurs in all cultures rural areas, suburbs, inner cities; well-to-do, poor; all races and religions more where many adults are engaged in violence Palestine, Ethiopia, South Africa Bullying in Many Nations
Families and Children Nature vs. Nurture debate continues particulars of family practice shared environmental influences nonshared environmental influences
FamilyFunction How a family works to meet the needs of its members provides food, clothing and shelter encourages learning develops self-esteem nurtures friendships with peers provides harmony and stability
Family Structure How a family is legally constructed and its members genetically constructed nuclear family—two parents and their biological children still most common type one-parent family—one parent and his or her biological children
Structure influences function structure alone is not a total measure genetic connection increases if families live together Connecting Structure and Function
Well-to-do families can easily provide (which explains why family income strongly correlates with optimal child development) better schools more material things to help children feel accepted accepted bigger houses in safer neighborhoods calmer home environment as parents need not disagree over money Family Income
Well-educated wage earners raise more successful children than do large, multigenerational families on public assistance Family Income, cont.
Harmony at Home Warmth or conflict that characterizes family interaction children are handicapped if parents verbally or physically abuse each other parental alliance—cooperative relationship, in which each parent supports the other’s parenting practices
The Single-Parent Family numbers have increased markedly over past two decades single parent is likely to work hard to fill dual role of provider and caregiver single parent tends to be younger (and less mature?) than married parents Harmony at Home, cont.
Harmony at Home, cont. Ethnic differences Outcome affected byincome, conflict at home, parental age and education, family support, number of children, social isolation, community support
Problems of middle childhood are often exacerbated by long-standing problems living with violent, emotionally disturbed, drug-addicted, or imprisoned parent living in decaying, violent, high-crime community growing up in a chronically poor household Children develop coping mechanisms Coping with Problems
Resilience dynamic process, not a stable trait positive adaptation to stress adversity must be significant Determining significance of stress how many stressors? how does the stress affect daily life? how does child interpret the stress? Resilience and the Assessment of Stress
Daily routines are crucial If child’s daily routines include the following, stress is overwhelming manage own daily care and school attendance contend directly with parent’s mental state supervise and discipline younger siblings keep friends away from house The Impact of Stress
Strong bond with loving parent can see children through many difficulties supportive family Community influences can counteract negative effects cultural differences in seeking support must be respected network of friends Child’s own attitude is crucial Social Support
Religious Faith and Coping Powerful source of support School-age children develop their own theology
How well children cope with the problems in their lives depends on the following: nature of stresses they experience strengths of their various competencies social support they receive neighborhoods where everyone is seen as responsible for all children can improve behavior Conclusion