Human Growth and Development NCE/CPCE Study Guide
Foundational issues in HGD A. Stages of human development • Prenatal period (conception to birth) • Infancy (birth to 2 yrs) • Toddlerhood (2 -3 yrs) • Early childhood (3 -5 yrs) • Middle childhood (6-12yrs) • Adolescence (13-19 yrs) • Young adulthood (19 -30) • Middle adulthood (30 -60) • Late adulthood (60 – 75) • Old age ( 75+)
Foundational issues in HGD • B. Types of aging • Biological aging (metabolic changes – anabolism and catabolism) • Psychological aging • Social aging
Foundational issues in HGD • C. Categorizing theories of human development • Learning, cognitive, psychoanalytic, humanistic, ethological, language, physical, and moral development. • Also: Nature vs nurture; continuous development vs discontinuous development; active vs reactive theories.
Special designs in HGD research • Case study • Naturalistic study • Survey research • Correlation research design • Cross-sectional design studies • Longitudinal design studies • Time-lag studies
Questions • 1. Aging is • A. Biological • B. Social • C. Psychological • D. all of the above
Questions • 2. Which of the following is NOT a true statement about biological aging? • A. Biological aging depends on metabolic changes • B. Biological aging refers to people’s perception of how old or young they feel • C. Biological aging refers to people’s perceptions of how old or young they feel. • D. Biological aging involves catabolism.
Questions • 3. Catabolism refers to • A. the body’s decline to death from its peak. • B. the body’s development from birth to its peak. • C. the metabolic changes that occur in the elderly • D. none of the above
Questions • 4. Intelligence is accounted for mostly by a person’s • A. environment • B. genetics • C. genetics and environment in equal parts • D. educational level.
Questions • 5. Epigenetic theorists emphasize the importance of • A. nature • B. nurture • C. the combination of nature and nurture • None of the above.
The Central Nervous System (CNS) • CNS – brain and spinal cord • Peripheral nervous system – network of nerves that connects the central nervous system to the rest of the body • Growth of the brain involves addition of new neurons and interconnectedness of these neurons and myelination (i.e. insulation of the neurons to enhance speed of neural transmissions).
The Brain • Hindbrain – medulla oblongata; cerebellum; pons; reticular activating system. • Midbrain • Forebrain – left hemisphere; right hemisphere; corpus callosum; cerebral cortex. • Other structures: thalamus; limbic system (hypothalamus, the amygdala and hippocampus) • Hemispheric specialization or lateralization
Genetic disorders • Three major classes: • 1. Autosomal diseases – genetic disorders that involve a chromosome other than the sex chromosome. • 2. X-linked diseases – passed on by the maternal X-chromosome to males. • 3. Sex chromosomal diseases – some genetic anomaly occurring on the sex-determining pair of chromosomes, usually affecting male or female characteristic displays or sexual reproduction.
Questions • 1. The brain usually reaches its adult weight by the time a person is • A. 12 years old • B. 16 years old • C. 44 years old • D. 64 years old
Questions • 2. The most primitive part of the brain is • A. hindbrain • B. midbrain • C. forebrain • D. Cerebral cortex
Questions • 3. The ___________is responsible for regulating arousal and attention. • A. medulla oblongata • B. cerebellum • C. Reticular activating system • D. Hypothalamus
Questions • 4. Sickle cell anemia is • A. an X-linked disease • B. a sex chromosomal disorder • C. an autosomal disorder • D. none of the above
Questions • 5. Males born with an extra X chromosome have • A. Turner syndrome • B. Tay-Sachs disease • C. phenylketonuria • Klinefelter’s syndrome
Learning theories • Learning = a relatively permanent change in behavior or thinking resulting from an individual’s experiences. • Learning theorists propose that individuals observe and react to their environment. • 1. Stimulus-response theories • 2. Social learning theories
Classical conditioning • Ivan Pavlov – salivating dogs • John B. Watson - “father of American behaviorism” – Little Albert • Joseph Wolpe- systematic desensitization; counterconditioning; aversive counterconditioning; flooding.
Operant conditioning • Edward Thorndike – Law of Effect • B.F. Skinner – Operant conditioning – vast majority of learning occurs when an individual operates on the environment or when the environment controls the contingencies of reinforcement for the individual. Positive reinforcement; negative reinforcement; punishment; reinforcement schedules.
Social learning • Albert Bandura • People learn through observation, imitation, and modeling. • Self-efficacy – (term developed by Bandura) – individual’s confidence in his or her ability to perform a given behavior or accomplish a given task.
The Dollard and Miller Approach • John Dollard • Neal Miller • Influenced by the psychoanalytic, behavioral, and social science concepts that preceded them. • Anxiety and psychological disturbances were learned from experiences.
The Dollard and Miller Approach • They identified three primary types of conflicts: • Approach- approach conflicts • Approach-avoidance conflicts • Avoidance-avoidance conflicts
Questions • 1. In Ivan Pavlov’s famous experiments with dogs, the conditioned stimulus was • A. the salivation • B. the meat powder • C. the bell, buzzer, or tone. • D. None of the above.
Questions • 2. In classical conditioning, when people present a conditioned stimulus at the same time as the unconditioned stimulus, they are using • A. Backward conditioning • B. simultaneous conditioning • C. retroactive conditioning • D. delayed conditioning.
Questions • 3. ________is the most successful form of conditioning. • A. Backward conditioning • B. Simultaneous conditioning • C. Retroactive conditioning • D. Delayed conditioning
Questions • 4. John B. Watson is most well-known for his experiments involving • A. a rat • B. dogs • C. ducklings • D. cats
Questions • _____________is best known for the theory of operant conditioning. • A. Ivan Pavlov • B. B.F. Skinner • C. John B. Watson • D. Albert Bandura
Cognitive Development • Jean Piaget’s cognitive development theory • Growth in mental development depended on one’s ability to order and classify new information: organization • Changes in cognitive structure occurred through adaptation, which involved assimilation and accommodation • Schema • Equilibrium • 4 stages of cognitive development
Lev Vygotsky’s Cognitive Development Theory • Constructionist, cognitive developmental theory that integrated language as well as social and cultural influences. • Cognitive progress facilitated by language development and occurred in a social context. • Zone of proximal development • Scaffolding • Described children’s speech during the first 3 years of life
Cognition and memory • Sensory memory – all the environmental stimuli to which one is exposed at any given moment in time. This information is ordinarily retained form only a few seconds. • Short-term memory – temporary information storage that allows information to be retained for seconds to minutes. • Long-term memory – enables a person to store a large amount of information for relatively permanent amounts of time, depending on how efficiently the person learned the information.
Cognition and memory • Encode • Retrieval theory • Decay of memory theory • Interference theory • Retroactive inhibition • Proactive inhibition
Other important concepts in cognitive development • Cognitive dissonance • Attribution theory • Imaginary audience (David Elkind) • Personal fable • Intelligence • Crystallized intelligencee • Creativity
Questions • 1. According to Piaget, when people use their existing cognitive framework to understand new information, they are involved in the process of adaptation, known as • A. assimilation • B. accommodation • C. symbolic representation • D. All of the above
Questions • 2. Children learn object permanence in the _________ stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. • A. sensorimotor • B. Preoperational • C. concrete operational • D. formal operational
Question • 3. Animism refers to • A. only being able to focus on one aspect of a problem at a time • B. thinking that humans created everything in the world • C. giving life to lifeless objects • D. the belief that actions cannot be reversed.
Questions • 4. Individuals can think logically and abstractly when they reach the _______stage of Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. • A. sensorimotor • B. preoperational • C. concrete operational • D. formal operational
Questions • 5. Some teenagers drive over the speed limit without wearing seatbelts because they do not believe that they can be hurt. These teenagers • A. have an imaginary audience • B. have created a personal fable • C. are engaged in magical thinking • D. are using divergent thinking.
Questions • Noam Chomsky’s theory of language development is considered to be a(n): • A. learning theory approach • B. nativist approach • C. interactionist approach • D. epigenetic approach
Cont. • Language rules that transcend specific languages and cultures are called: • A. surface structures • B. global structures • C. deep structures • D. instrinsic structures
Cont. • How many morphemes does the word “books” have? • A. 1 • B. 2 • C. 3 • D. 4
Cont. • The appropriate use of grammar is the definition of : • A. Syntax • B. Pragmatics • C. Semantics • D. Phonology
Cont. • When do babies become adept to holophrasing? • A. Approx. 8 months of age • B. Approx. 10 months of age • C. Approx. 1 year of age • D. Approx. 1.5 years of age
Personality Development • Freud believed that fixation results from: • A. overgratification • B. undergratification • C. Both overgratification and undergratification • D. None of the above
Cont. • Erikson would consider a normal 4-year-old child to be in the ____________stage of personality development. • A. Initiative vs Guilt • B. Basic trust vs. mistrust • C. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt • D. Industry vs. Inferiority
Cont. • A person who obeys group rules and seeks familial acceptance is in the ________stage of Loevinger’s ego development theory. • A. Integrated • B. Conformist • C. Self-awareness • D. Conscientious
Cont. • According to Maslow, before people can meet their needs for esteem, they must meet their need for: • A. Safety • B. Belongingness • C. Survival (Physiological needs) • D. All of the above
Cont. • Children who are clingy and react strongly to separation from their caregivers are considered by Mary Ainsworth to display: • A. secure attachment • B. Avoidant attachment • C. Ambivalent attachment • D. Disorganized attachment