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Human Growth and Development

Human Growth and Development

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Human Growth and Development

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  1. Human Growth and Development Chapter Three Heredity and Environment PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College Revised by Jenni Fauchier, Metropolitan Community College

  2. The Genetic Code Development that is dynamic, ongoing, interactional, and unique; just four chemicals are the basic building blocks of the genetic code

  3. What Genes Are • Genes are made up of DNA—the complex protein code of genetic information • DNA directs the form and function of each body cell as it develops

  4. Each molecule of DNA is called a chromosome • Chromosomes contain instructions to make all the proteins a living being needs • The packet of instructions is called a genome • Each person has 23 sets of chromosomes, or 46 chromosomes • The human genome contains 30,000 genes

  5. The Beginnings of Human Life • Gamete—reproductive cell that directs process by which genetic information combined and transmitted • Father gametes—sperm • Mother gametes—ovum

  6. Zygote and Genotype • Male and female gametes fuse and become a zygote • Zygote begins process of duplication and division • two reproductive cells

  7. Genotype—the genetic information from the 46 chromosomes • set at human conception and endures through life

  8. Sex Determination and Sex Ratio • Of 22 out of 23 pairs of human chromosome, the matching chromosomes are very closely matched • but not identical • some genes come in slight, normal variations called alleles • The 23rd pair is different • in females, it is designated XX • in males, it is designated XY

  9. Sex Determination and Sex Ratio, cont. • Females always contribute one X • Males will have 1/2 of the sperm contributing an X and the other half contributing a Y • Critical factor in determining the sex of a zygote is which sperm reaches the ovum first

  10. Sex Determination and Sex Ratio, cont. • Other factors include • rarely, male sperm may only carry either X or Y • sometimes a woman’s uterus either unusually alkaline or acid, giving either an X or Y sperm an advantage • in a stressful pregnancy XY embryos are more likely to be expelled than are XX embryos in a spontaneous abortion, or miscarriage • current sex ratio in United States is 52 males to 48 females

  11. Multiple Zygotes Monozygotic twins—identical twins (or quadruplets) originate from one zygote share identical instructions possibility of cloning 1/3 of twins monozygotic

  12. Multiple Zygotes, cont. • Dizygotic twins—from two separate zygotes • Dizygotic births occur once in every 60 births, and occur as frequently as 1 in 6 pregnancies, but usually only 1 twin develops past embryo stage

  13. Multiple Zygotes, cont. • Dizygotic twins • women in late 30’s are three times more likely to have dizygotic twins • as menopause approaches, ovulation becomes irregular with some cycles producing no ovas and others producing multiple ovas • share no more genes than other offspring (about 50 percent) • 50 percent of the time one twin is male

  14. The zygote contains a complete set of instructions to create a person Complex instructions on duplication, cell division, and differentiation Duplication, Division, and Differentiation

  15. Zygote begins duplication and division within hours after conception the 23 pairs of chromosomes duplicate, forming two complete sets of the genetic code for that person (zygote) these two pair sets move toward the opposite sides of the zygote and the single cell in the zygote splits down the middle the zygote’s outer membrane surrounds two cells, each containing a complete set of the original genetic code

  16. these two cells then duplicate and divide to become four, then eight, and so on • by birth, your original zygote has duplicated and divided into 10 trillion cells . . . by adulthood, it’s 100 trillion cells • Every cell carries an exact copy of the complete genetic instructions inherited by the one-celled zygote

  17. Differentiation Not just any cell found in the zygote can become a person At the 8-cell stage a third process, differentiation, occurs Cells begin to specialize they take different forms they reproduce at different rates, depending on where in the growing mass they are located

  18. Differentiation, cont. • Certain genes affect differentiation by switching other genes on and others off so that the other genes produce the right proteins at the right times—on-off switching mechanisms • Genotype—inheritance that can be observed or is expressed

  19. Gene - Gene Interactions Multifactoral traits—inherited traits produced by interaction of genes and environment Polygenetic traits—inherited traits produced by gene interaction These are affected by on-off switching mechanisms, additive genes, and dominant-recessive genes

  20. Additive Genes Additive genes—one of a number of genes affecting a specific trait each additive gene contributes to the trait skin color and height are determined by them every additive gene has some impact on a person’s phenotype when genes interact this way, all the involved genes contribute fairly equally

  21. Nonadditive genes—phenotype shows one gene more influential than other genes This is also referred to as the dominant-recessive pattern gene showing the most influence is referred to as dominant gene showing the least influence is referred to as recessive Dominant and Recessive Genes

  22. X-linked genes—located on X chromosome • if recessive gene is X-linked, that it is on the X chromosome is critical • female has one X chromosome and one Y; males have only 2 X • females’ recessive genes can be counterbalanced by Y chromosome, but males’ recessive genes can not because they have only the X chromosome • if X-linked gene recessive, may cause color blindness, many allergies, several diseases, and learning disabilities

  23. Genes direct the creation of 20 amino acids that produce thousands of proteins forming the body’s structure and directing biochemical functions proteins of each body cell are continually affected by other proteins, nutrients, and toxins that influence the cell functioning More Complications

  24. More Complications, cont. • genetic imprinting—tendency of certain genes to be expressed differently when inherited from mother than from father (tagging) • some of the genes which influence height, insulin production, and several forms of mental retardation affect a child differently depending on which parent they came from

  25. Since each gamete contains only 23 chromosomes, why is every conception genetically unique? 8 million chromosomally different ova x 8 million of the same = 64 trillion different possibilities of children from each couple Mechanisms of Genetic Diversity

  26. Genetic diversity safeguards human health Minute differences can affect the ability to stave off certain diseases Genetic diversity maintains the species Health Benefits of Genetic Diversity

  27. From Genotype to Phenotype Every psychological characteristic is genetically influenced Every psychological characteristic and personal trait is affected by the environment

  28. From Genotype to Phenotype, cont. • Genotype—genetic potential • Phenotype—combination of genetic potential and expression • we are all carriers of the unexpressed genes • we can pass them along through the sperm or ova

  29. Behavior Genetics Behavior genetics—study of effects of genes on behavior personality patterns, psychological disorders, and intellectual abilities

  30. Most common and feared type of senility is Alzheimer’s disease amyloid B protein accumulates in the brain, leading to dysfunction and destruction of brain cells and disruption of the mind Can be genetic—but only when “early-onset” Senility Caused by Alzheimer’s Disease

  31. Senility Caused by Alzheimer’s Disease, cont. • If “late-onset,” may be a combination of genes and environment • other predictors may include hypertension, diabetes, high cholesterol, diet, exercise, not smoking, weight control, mental alertness, and physical health

  32. Alcoholism Inherited biochemistry makes some people highly susceptible to alcohol addiction addictive pull can be overpowering, or weak, or something in the middle may explain ethnic variations

  33. Alcoholism, cont. Not simply a biochemical reaction—it is psychological and physical, and biological; thus alcoholism is polygenetic, with alcoholics inheriting a combination of biochemistry-affecting and temperament-affecting genes Culture counts too(whether alcohol is present in environment)

  34. We now give attention to these because we can recognize disruptions of normal development origins of genetic and chromosomal abnormalities misinformation and prejudice add to problems of people with these abnormalities Chromosomal and Genetic Abnormalities

  35. A gamete with more than or less than 23 chromosomes creates a zygote with chromosomal abnormalities most likely variable that creates chromosomal abnormalities is mother’s age (over 35) father’s age (over 40) also a variable Chromosomal Abnormalities

  36. Most zygotes with chromosomal abnormalities never come to term spontaneous abortion occurs in about one-half of all fetus with chromosomal abnormalities Chromosomal Abnormalities, cont.

  37. Three chromosomes at gene #21 (trisomy-21) Syndrome—a cluster of distinct characteristics that occur together in a given disorder Down Syndrome

  38. Location of sex chromosome Kleinfelters syndrome—XXY seemingly normal child has delayed puberty Fragile X syndrome hanging on by a thread (mutated gene) intensifies from generation to generation Abnormalities of the 23rd Pair

  39. Individuals with a parent, sibling, or child with a serious genetic condition known to be dominant or recessive Couples with history of early spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, or infertility Couples from the same ethnic group or subgroup—especially if closely related Women over 35 and men over 40 Genetic Testing and Genetic Counseling

  40. Counselor constructs couples’ family history charts patterns of health and illness over generations Some tests provide information before conception The Process of Genetic Counseling

  41. The Process of Genetic Counseling, cont. • Other tests are prenatal • alpha-fetoprotein assay • ultrasound (AKA sonogram) • amniocentesis • chorionic villi sampling • pre-implantation testing (used in in vitro fertilization) • gamete selection; ova/and or sperm are screened to select ones free of particular problems

  42. Many want to know ahead of time Some do not There is a more knowledge of what is to come—or not A Basis for Decision

  43. Alternatives If both partners are carriers of a serious condition or are at high risk because of age or family characteristics, they may turn to in-vitro fertilization (IVF) gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT) zygote intrafallopian transfer (ZIF) artificial insemination donor (AID) postponement of pregnancy until promising treatments are further developed