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Human Growth and Development

Human Growth and Development

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Human Growth and Development

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  1. Human Growth and Development Chapter Two Theories of Development PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College Revised by Jenni Fauchier, Metropolitan Community College

  2. Five Questions Central to Theories Do early experiences of breast-feeding or bonding or abuse linger into adulthood, even if they seem to be forgotten? How important are specific school experiences in human intelligence? Can a person develop moral values without being taught them?

  3. Five Questions Central to Theories, cont. • Does culture elicit behavior, e.g., is violent crime more common in one place than another; for example, in China or Canada? • If your parents or grandparents schizophrenia, or alcoholism, will you develop them suffer from depression,? • Of all questions—Why or Why not? When and How?, So What?

  4. Developmental theory—systematic statement of principles and generalizations that provides a coherent framework for studying development What Theories Do

  5. What Theories Do, cont. • Theories • form basis for hypotheses that can be tested by research studies • formulating right question is more difficult that finding right answers • generate discoveries • offer insight and guidance by providing coherent view

  6. What Theories Do, cont. • Different Types • grand theories—comprehensive, traditional theories • originated in psychology • minitheories—theories that focus on specific area of development • originated more in sociology through study of social groups and family structures • emergent theories—new, comprehensive groupings of minitheories • multidisciplinary approach includes historic events and genetic discoveries

  7. Grand Theories Grand Theories—powerful framework for interpreting and understanding change and development that applies to all individuals in all contexts, across all contents

  8. Psychoanalytic theory interprets human development in terms of motives and drives Psychoanalytic Theory

  9. Freud’s Ideas Sigmund Freud Three stages of development in first six years oral, anal, phallic in early childhood, latency and then adolescence, genital each stage includes potential conflicts how a person experiences and resolves conflicts determines personality and patterns of behavior

  10. Erikson’s Ideas Erik Erikson, a follower of Freud, proposed 8 developmental stages, each characterized by a developmental crisis trust vs. mistrust autonomy vs. shame initiative vs. guilt industry vs. inferiority identity vs. role diffusion intimacy vs. isolation generativity vs. stagnation integrity vs. despair

  11. Behaviorism is built on laws of behavior and processes by which behavior is learned focus: ways we learn specific behaviors that can be described, analyzed, and predicted with scientific accuracy Behaviorism

  12. Conditioning—any process in which behavior is learned Classical conditioning—Ivan Pavlov process by which a neutral stimulus become associated with a meaningful stimulus stimulus and response (respondent conditioning) Learning by association Laws of Behavior

  13. Operant conditioning—B. F. Skinner • process by which a response is gradually learned via reinforcement or punishment • also called instrumental conditioning • Learning by consequence

  14. Social Learning Extension of learning theory that includes modeling which involves people observing behavior and patterning their own after it Modeling process in which people observe, then copy behavior Alfred Bandura—most likely to occur if model is admired or observer is inexperienced self-efficacy motivates people to change themselves and their contexts

  15. Focuses on the structure and development of thought processes, which shape perceptions, attitudes, and actions. Jean Piaget’s 4 Stages sensorimotor pre-operational concrete operational formal operational Cognitive Theory

  16. Cognitive Theory, cont. • Cognitive equilibrium—state of mental balance • Cognitive adaptation—assimilation, accommodation of ideas

  17. Emergent theories arise from several accumulated minitheories and may be the new systematic and comprehensive theories of the future Emergent Theories

  18. Sociocultural Theory Seeks to explain growth of individual knowledge, development, and competencies in terms of guidance, support, and structure supplied by the society human development is the result of dynamic interaction of the developing persons and their surrounding culture

  19. Guided participation—tutor engages learner in joint activities, providing instruction and direct involvement in learning Apprenticeship in thinking—mentor provides instruction and support needed by novice Guided Participation

  20. Zone of proximal development—range of skills learner can perform with assistance but not independently learner is drawn into learning by teacher Cultural variations: Basic principles are universal, but skills, challenges, and opportunities vary from culture to culture, depending on the values and structures of the culture’s society The Zone of Proximal Development

  21. Epigenetic Theory Emphasizes the interaction between genes and the environment—the newest developmental theory stresses that we have powerful instincts and abilities that arise from our biological heritage. Timing and pace of certain developmental changes are genetically guided performism—everything is set in advance by genes and then is gradually manifested in the course of maturation

  22. Genetic refers to the entire genome that makes up the particular genes that cause each person to be unique each human has a genetic foundation that is unique epigenetic theory acknowledges the powerful instincts and abilities that arise from our biological heritage With, On, and Around the Genes

  23. With, On, and Around the Genes, cont. • Epi = with, around, before, after, on, or near = surrounding factors • epigenetic—surrounding factors that affect expression of genetic instructions • some surrounding factors may be stress factors; others may be facilitating factors • Genetic-environmental Interactions • genes never function alone

  24. Adaptation of the Genes selective adaptation means that genes for the traits that are most useful will become more frequent, thus making survival of species more likely Genetic Adaptation

  25. What Theories Can Contribute Psychoanalytic theory has made us aware of importance of early childhood experiences Behaviorism has shown effect of immediate environment on learning Cognitive theory helps us understand how intellectual process and thinking affect actions

  26. What Theories Can Contribute, cont. • Sociocultural theory has reminded us that development is embedded in a rich and multifaceted context • Epigenetic theory emphasizes interactions between inherited forces and immediate contexts

  27. What Theories Can Contribute, cont. • Eclectic perspective • approach taken by most developmentalists in which they apply aspects of each of the various theories rather than staying with just one

  28. The Nature-Nurture Controversy Is it heredity or environment that shapes us? How much is a result of any given characteristics, behavior or pattern of development is a result of genes and how much is a result of experiences Policy and practice: nature/nurture theories are implicit in many public policies