Human Growth and Development Chapter Eleven The School Years: Biosocial Development PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College Revised by Jenni Fauchier, Metropolitan Community College
A Healthy Time Middle childhood, ages 7 to 11, is generally a happy, easy time children usually healthy and self-reliant
Typical Size and Shape Contributing Factors to Variations in physique nutrition, genetic factors, gender undernutrition, which does not disappear with age or a nation’s wealth, correlated with less growth and more illness
Overweight—20% above ideal weight for height Obesity—30% over ideal weight for height about one-third of American children obese psychological, physical, and medical problem Childhood Obesity
Causes of Childhood Obesity • Genetic Differences • genes do not act in isolation • Environmental Factors • cultural values • lack of exercise • poor quality food • watching TV/video
Middle childhood is the period of life when chronic illness is least common Asthma is the most common medical problem that causes absences from school Chronic Illness: The Case of Asthma
Asthma—chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways; affects between 10% and 20% of school-age children in North America three times as common as 20 years ago figures expected to double again by 2020 Possible Causes genes on chromosomes 2, 11, 12, 13, and 21 exposure to allergens Causes of Asthma
Primary prevention: proper ventilation; decreased pollution; eradication of cockroaches; safe outdoor play spaces Secondary prevention: ridding house of allergens; breast-feeding, if genetic history is known Tertiary prevention: care after ailment is recognized; in doctor’s office, hospital Prevention of Asthma
Brain Development Brain reaches adult size at age 7 Hemispheric specialization makes brain more efficient overall
Changes become apparent in both motor and cognitive development Rapid growth rate of school-age children leads them to be better able to control their bodies and emotions Advances in Middle Childhood
Selective attention—ability to attend to information from many areas of brain at one time and pay special attention to most important elements the result of extensive myelination and increased production of neurotransmitters Attention and Automatization
Automatization—process by which thoughts and actions are repeated in sequence until they become routed or automatic and need little conscious thought becomes easier and faster with myelination reading an example of automatization Attention and Automatization, cont.
Brain maturation is a key factor in decrease of reaction time—length of time it takes to react to a stimulus older child has faster reaction time than younger child Motor Skills
Child’s motor habits benefit from connections formed in brain corpus callosum continues to mature motor abilities advanced through play rough-and-tumble play may help to regulate and coordinate frontal lobes of brain may also help in interpretation and in providing emotional regulation Motor Skills, cont.
Brain and Intelligence Cognition is improved this advance reflected on tests
Tests of Ability Intellectual skills Aptitude—potential to learn or achieve IQ test—test to measure intellectual aptitude Achievement—what a person has learned
Achievement tests measure reading ability, math knowledge, scientific knowledge, and writing skills Two highly regarded IQ tests Stanford-Binet Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children designed for school-age children Tests of Ability, cont.
Quite reliable in predicting school achievement, and somewhat reliable in predicting adult career attainment difficult to measure potential without achievement does not consider rate of development, culture, family, school, genes in comparing IQ to achievement, learning disabilities may be noted Criticisms of IQ Testing
Standard IQ tests measure only linguistic and logical-mathematical ability no measure for other types of intelligence Sternberg (1996) suggests 3 types of intelligence academic (IQ and achievement) creative (evidenced by imaginative endeavors) practical (seen in everyday interactions)
Gardner describes 8 distinct intelligences linguistic logical-mathematical musical spatial bodily-kinesthetic interpersonal (social understanding) intrapersonal (self-understanding) naturalistic
Some children, because of a physical or mental disability, require special help in order to learn—children with special needs 13% of all U.S. schoolchildren in 2000 individual education plan (IEP) legally required document specifying a series of educational goals for each child with special needs Children with Special Needs
Field in which knowledge of normal development is applied to the study and treatment of psychological disorders Offers 4 lessons applicable to all children abnormality is normal disability changes over time adulthood may be better or worse than present diagnosis depends on social context Developmental Psychopathology
Severe problems that affect many aspects of psychological growth Pervasive Developmental Disorders
Autism—inability to relate in ordinary ways to others extreme self-absorption, inability to learn normal speech quite rare; occurs in about 1 of every 2,000 children Incidence
Possible Causes Particular genes may make some embryos more vulnerable than others teratogens may increase genetic weakness Theory that childhood immunization may cause genetic weakness has been disproved Other theories are under investigation
Asperger syndrome—less severe autism good communication, poor social perceptions Early Pervasive Developmental Disorder Child has deficiencies in three areas ability to communicate social skills imaginative play Changes over Time
In later childhood and beyond child may lack awareness of thoughts of other people theory of mind emotional regulation Changes over Time, cont.
ADD—Attention-Deficit Disorder AD/HD—Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder most common type lack of concentration accompanied by excitability, impulsivity, need to be active easily frustrated and quick-tempered Attention-Deficit Disorders
Attention-Deficit Disorders, cont. Possible Causes neurological genetic vulnerability teratogens postnatal damage e.g., lead poisoning
Learning Disabilities Half of all ADD children also have learning disability Learning-disabled—having a marked delay in a particular area of learning not associated with any physical handicap, overall mental retardation, or unusually stressful home environment
Dyslexia—unusual difficulty with reading Most common learning disability Indications of learning disabilities may be advanced in comprehension through use of contextual clues, but behind in ability to match letters to sounds discrepancy between aptitude and achievement scores on intelligence tests Learning Disabilities, cont.
Treatment of Attention-Deficit Disorders Help for children with ADHD drugs with reverse effect 11 million prescriptions for Ritalin in 1999 ongoing changes at home and school psychological therapy for child and family structure of classroom too rigid or too loose harmful flexible structure helpful
Mainstreaming—federal policy under which children with special needs must be taught in the least restrictive environment —which usually means placing them with other children in the general classroom Educating Children with Special Needs
Least restrictive environment (LRE)— legally required school setting that offers children with special needs as much freedom as possible to benefit from the instruction available to other children; often, in the general classroom Educating Children with Special Needs, cont.
Some schools set aside a resource room where children with special needs spend part of the day with a specially trained teacher equipped to work with the disability Educating Children with Special Needs, cont.
Inclusion—a policy under which learning-disabled children are included in the regular class, but are supervised by a specially trained teacher or para-professional for all or part of the day leading toward integration: each child within a regular classroom is a vital part of that social and educational group Educating Children with Special Needs, cont.
Conclusion Parents should be taught specific ways to encourage their children to show appropriate behavior If problem undiagnosed, intervention may not begin when it should and may also be less effective Both home and school context make a difference