Human Growth andDevelopment Chapter Twelve The School Years: Cognitive Development PowerPoints prepared by Cathie Robertson, Grossmont College Revised by Jenni Fauchier, Metropolitan Community College
Building on Piaget and Vygotsky Concrete Operational Thought Piaget’s 3rd stage children reason logically about the things and events that they perceive Vygotsky did not believe the child was a socially isolated learner instruction by others is crucial
Logical Principles Classification Identity Reversibility Reciprocity
Classifying Objects, Ideas, and People Classification—process of organizing things into groups according to some shared property Children have an understanding categories can be any of the following: hierarchical overlapping separate Children that can categorize can analyze problems, derive correct solutions, and ask follow-up questions
Identity, Reversibility, and Reciprocity identity—the idea that certain characteristics of an object remain the same even if other characteristics change reversibility—the idea that sometimes an object that has been changed can be returned to its original state by reversing the process by which it was changed Reciprocity occurs when 2 things change in opposite ways in order to balance each other out; e.g., conservation experiment with liquid
Identity, Reversibility, and Reciprocity all three concepts are relevant to mathematical processes these concepts can be (but are not always) applied to everyday social encounters
Logic and Culture Piaget’s ideas still remain logical research shows that sometimes older children may make mistakes when applying new logic Vygotsky’s premise is that, added to Piaget’s ideas, the social cultural context of learning is important
Most research in U.S. and England • but in Brazil, research has shown that street children who do not attend school can still think in complex ways, and that a special relationship exists between thinking and experience
Focus is on Kohlberg’s theory built on Piaget’s theory and research, theory describes moral developmental stages Moral Development
Kohlberg’s Stages Kohlberg studied responses of subjects presented with ethical dilemmas to see how a person reasons determine stage of moral development
Kohlberg’s Stages, cont. • Kohlberg found 3 levels of moral reasoning • I. Preconventional: Middle Childhood • these first 2 stages of moral thinking relate to preoperational thought, in being egocentric • emphasis on getting rewards and avoiding punishment
II. Conventional: End of Middle Childhood, Beginning of Adolescence these 2 stages relate to concrete operational thought, in referencing observable practices in community emphasis on social rules Kohlberg’s Stages, cont.
III. Postconventional : Adolescence and Adulthood these 2 stages similar to formal or postformal thought, which includes ideas and ideals emphasis on moral principles Kohlberg’s Stages, cont.
Kolhberg’s Critics Kohlberg’s basic scheme has been replicated, but his ideas have been widely criticized Three Major Criticisms flawed research methods hierarchy biased in favor of Western elite moral development of women ignored
Kohlberg’s Critics, cont. Criticism 1: Methodology: To avoid Kohlberg’s cumbersome methodology, James Rest devised Defining Issues Test (DTI)— a questionnaire that measures moral thinking by asking people to read various dilemmas and then rank 12 statements as possible resolutions for each statement DIT confirms validity of Kohlberg’s three levels
Criticism 2: Cultural Differences research suggests that in non-Western cultures, preeminent values are different from western ones, making it harder for non-Westerners to score at Kolberg’s preconventional level research suggests that Kohlberg’s hierarchy may underestimate reasoning capacity of some school-age children in some cultures Kohlberg’s Critics, cont.
Kohlberg’s Critics, cont. • Criticism 3: Gender Issues • Carol Gilligan (1982) • females develop more of a morality of care—a reluctance to judge right and wrong in absolute terms because they are socialized to be nurturant, compassionate, nonjudgmental • males develop more of a morality of justice—a tendency to emphasize justice over compassion, judging right and wrong in absolute terms
Piaget’s and Vygotsky’s theories in relation to moral development both recognize ages 7 to 11 are time for moral growth children eager to develop moral values in stages (Kohlberg, inspired by Piaget) or in response to cultural norms (Vygotsky and Gilligan) Information Processing
Information Processing • Information Processing Theory • processes by which the mind • analyses • stores • retrieves • Mind is like a computer • capacity can be upgraded with development
Sensory memory aka sensory register—stores incoming stimulus for split second then sends it on sensations become perceptions Working (short-term) memory—where your current, conscious mental activity occurs Long-term memory—stores information for minutes, hours, days, months, years Memory
Older children are quicker thinkers than younger children Thinking speed continues to increase throughout adolescence Automatization helps free up thoughts for speed of processing Speed of Processing
Knowledge base—broad body of knowledge in a particular subject area that makes it easier to master new learning in that area Connections between bits of information improve as the knowledge base expands Knowledge Base
Control processes—regulate the analysis and flow of information within the system helped by maturation of prefrontal cortex Control Processes
Selective attention—ability to concentrate on relevant information and disregard distractions Memory and thought depend on this ability focusing on what needs to be remembered Improved control emotional regulation shows it Selective Attention
“Thinking about one’s thoughts” Older children approach cognitive tasks more strategically and analytically Metacognition
The Pragmatics of Language • Pragmatics—using language fluently in many types of situations; from play through school years, distinguished by • logic • memory • ability to make connections between one bit of knowledge and another
Teaching and Learning Worldwide, many ideological debates swirl around the content and practice of elementary education A review of practices in 5 cultures found discrepancy between “expressed claim and observed reality”
Which Curriculum? Intended curriculum—content political and educational leaders decide to endorse Implemented curriculum—what teachers and school administrators actually offer Attained curriculum—what students actually learn
Hidden curriculum—unspoken and often unrecognized lessons children learn in school organization and schedule arise from hidden curriculum e.g., classroom size Which Curriculum, cont.
Phonics Whole language “Reading Wars”—clashes over these two methods of teaching children to read The Reading Wars
Phonics approach—teaching reading by requiring children to learn the sounds of each letter before they begin to decipher simple words Phonics Versus Whole Language
Whole-language approach—teaching reading by encouraging children to develop all their language skills— talking and listening, reading and writing—all with the goal of communication Phonics Versus Whole Language, cont.
The Socioeconomic Divide Language development, reading attainment correlate with socioeconomic status the lower the family income, the less developed a child’s vocabulary and grammar Crucial factor seems to be actual exposure to language (children exposed to language at home will have larger vocabularies) vocabulary size the best predictor of school achievement and overall intelligence
Math and science are key areas in which children should be ready for the challenges of the future gains in U.S. have faded Traditionally taught through rote learning children came to hate math taught this way The Math Wars
New curriculum developed that teaches concepts, problem solving, estimating, and probability this approach may be working proportion of 4th graders who were “proficient” doubled (26%) The Math Wars, cont.
The Math Wars, cont. Technology is another area of controversy Specifically, computers digital divide—gap between rich and poor in computer access students in U. S. twice as likely to use computers in math and science than students in other nations . . . but our math and science scores relatively low
Learning a 2nd language best time to be taught it is in middle childhood Bilingual Education
Total immersion—approach that teaches a second language in which instruction occurs entirely in that language and the learner’s language is not used at all Various Approaches
Success or failure in 2nd language learning seems to lie in the attitude of teachers parents the larger community Additive bilingualism—both languages valued and used Semilingual—neither language learned well Attitudes and Achievement