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Introduction to the Periodic Table

Introduction to the Periodic Table

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Introduction to the Periodic Table

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  1. Introduction to the Periodic Table Atomic Number ● Symbol ● Atomic Weight

  2. I am Dmitri Mendeleev! I made the PERIODIC TABLE !

  3. What is the PERIODIC TABLE? • Shows all known elements in the universe. • Organizes the elements by chemical and physical properties.

  4. How do you read the PERIODIC TABLE?

  5. What does it mean? Atomic number is the number of protons in the nucleus. Atomic weight is the weight of the nuclues- equals the number of the protons and neutrons.

  6. Using your textbook, locate the elements below and identify their atomic numbers, symbol, and atomic weight. Be prepared to share your findings! • Sodium • Oxygen • Copper

  7. Common Elements • You will need to know these common elements: • 1. H 7. C 13.Au 19. Pb • 2. Na 8. N 14. Sn 20. F • 3. K 9. O 15. Al 21. Ni • 4. Ca 10. He 16. Pt 22. P • 5. Fe 11. Cl 17. Hg 23. Mg • 6. Cu 12. S 18. Ne 24. I • 25. Zn

  8. Introduction to the Periodic Table • The periodic table shows all of the known elements in order of increasing atomic number.

  9. The Modern Periodic Table • Group : Each vertical column • Also called a family • Have similar physical and chemical properties • Identified by a number (1-18)

  10. The Modern Periodic Table • Periods : horizontal rows (7 of them) • physical and chemical properties change somewhat regularly across a period

  11. Introduction to the Periodic Table • Most elements are metals and occur on the left side. • The nonmetals appear on the right side. • Metalloids appear on the stair steps

  12. Metals • All metals are solid, with the exception of mercury • Most have high melting points • Easily lose electrons • Have luster (reflect light) • Good conductor of heat and electricity • Malleable • Ductile

  13. Nonmetals - tend to gain e- Gases or brittle solids Poor conductors of heat and electricity Many essential for life C, S, N, O, I Metalloids - An element that has some characteristics of metals and some characteristics of nonmetals -located along the stair-step line at the right side of the table -tend to be semiconductors of electricity Nonmetals & Metalloids

  14. Group 1 Alkali Metals • They are so reactive to oxygen and water that they do not occur in nature in their pure state and must be stored in a specific way. • Note: This group does NOT include Hydrogen

  15. Alkali metals (cont.) • Their reactivity increases as you go down the group. • Ex. Francium (Fr) more reactive than Sodium (Na) • Soft: Can cut these metals with a knife

  16. Alkali Metal with water

  17. Example- Rubidium and water

  18. Group 2 - Alkaline Earth Metals • Second column on the periodic table • They are not as soft as the Group 1 metals. • They are too reactive to occur in nature in their pure state, but NOT as reactive as alkali metals. • Their reactivity increases as you go down the column.

  19. Intro to the PT • Groups 3 – 12 on the periodic table • Called the transition metals

  20. Transition Metals • The lower middle section of the P.T. • These metals have multiple charges which means that they can bond in multiple ways.

  21. Noble Gases - The elements in Group 18 are gases at room temperature and generally unreactive. -They are the most stable elements on the periodic table.

  22. How do I find the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons in an element using the periodic table? • # of PROTONS= ATOMIC NUMBER • # of ELECTRONS= ATOMIC NUMBER • # of NEUTRONS= ATOMIC _ ATOMIC WEIGHT NUMBER