Sectionalism US History
What is “sectionalism”? • Sectionalism: giving primary loyalty to a state or region rather than to the nation as a whole.
Setting the stage • After 1812 War, an “Era of Good Feeling” emerged in the US. • National harmony • Political cooperation • An example: When Monroe ran for a 2nd term, he was unopposed and received all but 1 electoral vote.
Differences were looming • Despite “Good Feeling,” regional differences of opinion emerged • National debates over: • Power of the Central Government • States’ Rights • Slavery 40 years later, a Civil War….
Sectionalism emerges • By late 1820s, sectionalism crushes the “Era of Good Feeling” • Different life styles in the sections of the US became more pronounced after 1812 War because of • Economic development • Population shifts N W S
Sectionalism: Characteristics • North: • Commercial economy • Favored policies that protect industries from foreign competition. • Increase trade. • Provide a strong banking system.
Sectionalism: Overview • South: • Agricultural economy • Increase cotton exports • Short staple cotton thanks to Eli Whitney’s cotton gin. • Slavery perpetuated! • Favored less interference from federal govt.
Sectionalism: Overview • West • Agricultural economy • Wanted federal protection • Improve transportation. • Against regulated banking.
Sectionalism: The NorthWhat it wanted • Favored “bank of the US” • Favored protective tariffs (protect US industry) • Favored increased immigration (more labor) • Divided on territorial expansion. • Favored road and canal projects.
Sectionalism: The South • Opposed a bank of the US. • Opposed protective tariffs. • Opposed new immigration. • Favored territorial expansion. • Opposed road and canal projects.
Sectionalism: The West • The West: Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri. • Opposed the bank of the US. • Divided on the tariff issue. • Favored increased immigration. • Favored territorial expansion. • Favored road and canal projects.
An example: The Tariff Controversy • In 1828, Congress passed a very high protective tariff. • [Southerners called it the “Tariff of Abominations”] • Purpose: to protect infant Northern industries from foreign competition.
Tariff Controversy • Northerners loved it! • It lets them grow their industries. • Southerners hated it! • High rates increase cost of foreign manufactured goods in the South. • Foreign nations will reciprocate (raise tariffs against Southern goods.)