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Chapter 9 Functional and Curriculum-Based Assessment
Functional Behavioral Assessment “proactive approach to program planning …link to intervention based on the purpose of the student’s behavior …” (Barnhill, 2005, p. 132) “…methods for gathering information about antecedents, behaviors, and consequences …to determine the reason or purpose of behavior.” (Gresham, Watson, & Skinner, 2001, p. 156).
Purposes or Functions Behavior may serve a need for… • Attention or reinforcement • Access to something desirable • Task avoidance or of other individuals • Internal stimulation • Revenge • Power or control
Functional Behavioral Assessment is needed when… • A student’s classroom behavior… • consistently interferes with the student’s own learning, • consistently interferes with other students’ learning, or • consistently interferes with a teacher’s ability to conduct class
FBA Components 1. A basic understanding of behavior 2. Identifying target behavior 3. Observing and collecting baseline data 4. Identifying setting events and/or antecedents of behavior • Proximate setting events • Distant setting events • Where is the behavior least likely to occur?
FBA Components continued 5. Identify the consequences maintaining the target behavior 6. Identify the function or purpose of the target behavior • Interview the student 7. Identify replacement behaviors 8. Develop Behavior Intervention Plan (BIP)
In addition • An FBA must consider the curriculum content in relation to the student’s present performance level • One way to determine is through Curriculum Based Assessment (CBA)
CBA Goal… • is to eliminate curriculum mismatches between students’ skills and classroom assignments and expectations
CBA is • Appropriate for all students • A “no fault” approach • A way to identify diverse students and the need for broad-based curriculum
Primary Tool for CBA: Probes • Short-timed assessments that target specific skills in… • Writing • Math • Reading • Report growth-over-time via charts/graphs
Then use Error Analysis • Student errors provide teachers with a window into their thoughts and problem-solving skills
Remember Student must… • feel comfortable making errors and admitting areas of confusion and difficulty • know that errors are acceptable, welcomed, and encouraged • know that all their answers , even incorrect ones, are valued
CBA and Behavior Connection • Behavior problems may be a sign of academic problems • Ask: What am I asking the student to do? • Provides control for instructional difficulty • Ask: Is this an essential skill? • Ask: Could I change my approach?
CBA and Exceptional Students • This connection can… • assist in identifying student academic strengths and weaknesses • help determine starting point for instruction • assist with progress monitoring • inform instructional design • reduce student & teacher frustration
Summary – FBA & CBA • a systematic way to begin to effect change in target behaviors • allow for identifying A-B-C’s of behavior • identify curricular challenges • use of CBA and error analysis can assist with aligning student behavior and classroom expectations