24.3 Early Years of the War On the Left Hand Side CA Standards 8.10.5 8.10.6
Essential Questions • Why did the Union army have such a hard time defeating the Confederate forces in the east? • Why was the Union army successful in winning the western campaign? • What advantages did Grant’s armies gain for the North?
1862/ Battles at Sea • Both navies battle it out. -South only have 130 naval ships. • Ironclads used as part of blockade, and used to break it. • March, famous battle between ironclads (USA Monitor v. CSA Merrimack or Virginia) end in a draw.
1862/ War in the West • General Ulysses S. Grant, “…hit them hard…keep moving…” • Plan to take Tennessee -Captures CSA forts, Ft. Henry and Ft. Donelson in Feb. -Opens river route into southern heartland by using ironclads.
Battle of Shiloh • Heading south in April 1862, Grant is surprised by CSA General Albert S. Johnston. • Worst fighting of the war so far. -General William T. Sherman has three horses shot from under him. -Johnston killed. -CSA retreat. -13,000 USA and 11,000 CSA troops killed.
Fall of New Orleans • Admiral David Farragut captures major port city. • After Grant and his victories, USA almost has total control of Mississippi River. • Vicksburg is the next goal.
1862/ War in the East • After the 1st Battle of Bull Run, new General George McClellan given control of army in the east. -Too cautious, trained his army for seven months. • Moves on to Richmond in March. -Stops and waits (one month) for more troops. -CSA reinforces army • Lee fights McClellan, “Seven Day’s Battles” • McClellan retreats.
Lee’s Victories • After CSA victory at the Second Battle of Bull Run, Lee decides to invade the North in Sep. -Force Lincoln to talk peace. -CSA can rest during harvest. -CSA can plunder USA farms for food. -Prove to European countries to support CSA.
Antietam, Sep. 1862 • Lee draws up plans for invasion of the North. -Officer wraps the plan around three cigars and leaves them behind. -Union troops find them and give them to McClellan. -Lee plans to split his army in two. • McClellan attacks Lee’s bigger army at Sharpsburg, MD.
Cont’ • In the end over 25,000 men will die. -12,000 Union troops lost. -14,000 CSA killed. -Lee loses 1/3 of army and retreats. • McClellan fails to pursue Lee into Virginia. -Angers Lincoln and fires him that November
Letter Writing • Break you up into pairs (boy/girl). • Write a letter to one other. • If you’re male, pretend you are a soldier in the army or an army doctor. -Explain your everyday lives, the battles, you been, the awful things you have seen tell the person how much you miss them. • If you are a female, pretend you are back home. What are you doing? Taking care of the farm or business, working in a factory, working as a nurse. -Explain the things you have seen, the struggles you are enduring, and how much you miss them.
Any date, 1862 • Dear___________, • Over a hundred words, second letter will connect more because you read the first letter. You are responsing. With Love, Your Name