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Day 3

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Day 3

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  1. Day 3 Driving Questions Why do we need to study past climate? How can we reconstruct past climate?

  2. Agenda Morning 1. Observing tree cookies. 2. Tree rings: How can trees tell us about climate? 3. Tree coring (10 oak trees) 4. Tree as proxy data: Tree core analysis and finding correlations with climate. Afternoon 5. Classroom Activities for teaching climate using tree rings 6. Presentation (Emi Ito): Climate change in Earth history and Human history 7. Manoomin Project (Holly Pellerin) 8. Medicine Wheel (Daiana, Dwight, Younkyeong)

  3. Telling time and climate using tree rings

  4. Tree cookies?

  5. Observation of a tree cookie – What did you find about the tree?

  6. How do trees grow? In order to move water and nutrients efficiently within themselves, woody plants had to develop a plumbing system.  Just underneath the bark is a layer of plant tissues that serves this function.  This is actually the only part of the trunk that is alive.  It is called the Cambial Layer (red arrow).   Within the cambial layer, one kind of tissue transports liquids from the roots to the leaves.  This is called theXylem.  Another transports liquids from the leaves to the roots and also laterally above ground.  This is called the Phloem.   As the plant grows it constantly renews both of these.  Only the new xylem and phloem transport water and nutrients.  The old xylem tissue becomes the wood and the old phloem tissue becomes the bark. 

  7. What is a tree ring? A tree ring is really an expression of the seasonality of climate Width Chemical/Isotopic Composition (Climate change, pollution tracking, precipitation sources, tropical dendro) Tree-ring Density (X-Ray Densitometry; temperature variability) Late Wood (Summer Wood) Early Wood (Spring Wood) Annual Ring

  8. Center Oak Maple Bark

  9. Tree coring and making tree cores

  10. How do scientist study trees?

  11. Biological Growth Curve: The average radial growth of as tree as measured over time. Standardization: The process by which the biological growth curve is removed from the individual raw ring width measurements producing a new time series of index values(indices).

  12. The Principle of Crossdating Ring counting ≠ crossdating. Crossdating: The procedure of matching ring-width variations among many trees from nearby areas allowing the identification of the precise year in which each ring was formed (Fritts 1976). Absolutely essential in applications that make comparisons with time-dependent phenomena (e.g., interannual climate variability).

  13. Crossdating: Temporal Control and Chronology Extension Chronology Extension Very Old Dwelling Dead Tree Living Tree

  14. The Importance of Chronology Extension Living trees only extend to 1675 Remnant materials extend chronology to 1197 >470 year difference! Remnants Living Trees

  15. Cross-dating in Practice: Skeleton Plotting The narrowest ring is connected (blue line) with the longest skeleton mark. The widest ring is connected (green line) with a "b" mark. Note the red line: 1.Points to a ring of average width, but it seems narrow compared to the preceding ring 2.Perhaps it merits a small mark because of the large year-to-year difference

  16. Dendrochronologists can make skeleton plots to standardise scales: Note the three skeleton plots of the figure above: Have the same relative scale making them easy to compare to one another while clearly showing the same pattern of ring width variation in each sample

  17. Full ring False ring

  18. Morrison Lake, Beaverhead Mountains, MT About 25cm

  19. Fig. 4. A composite CO2 record over six and a half ice age cycles, back to 650,000 years B.P. The record results from the combination of CO2 data from three Antarctic ice cores: Dome C (black), 0 to 22 kyr B.P. (9, 11) and 390 to 650 kyr B.P.; Vostok (blue), 0 to 420 kyr B.P. (5, 7), and Taylor Dome (light green), 20 to 62 yr B.P. U. Siegenthaler et al., Science 310, 1313 -1317 (2005) Published by AAAS

  20. Karner et al. Paleoceanography, 2002 1.5‰ Variation relative to a nominal mean value per core Cold Warm ~70% of variation continental ice volume

  21. Antarctic Dome C ice core record warmer Thousands of years ago Lüthi et al. 2008, Nature

  22. 2010 2009 2008

  23. 20 15 10 5 0

  24. Steel Lake core image(scale in cm; this section represents ~100 years)

  25. pine/birch/aspen Prairie Period oak savanna pine savanna pine spruce