War With Mexico“Ivasión Yanqui” 1846-1848
Causes of War • Annexation of Texas • US citizens in Mexico make claims against the Mexican Gov’t • Desire to acquire California
Texas: Southern Border at the Rio Grande Mexico: Northern Border at the Nueces ~ 100 miles discrepancy Nueces River Dispute
John Slidell Diplomat Goals: • boundary adjustments in TX (Rio Grande) • purchase CA & NM Refused by Mexico
James K. Polk • Bullies a weaker nation to extend slavery • “Polk the Purposeful” sets a trap • Withheld details from congress, negotiated with Santa Anna
President Polk prepares to take his slice of Mexico's territorial pie.
Controversial War Supporters • Justified as the preservation of fundamental beliefs • “Manifest Destiny” Critics • An act of aggression • A strong nation attacking a weak one to force concessions unable to be negotiated Also the question of “who started it?”
Ultimately, Mexican-American War divided the nation Tarnished the US’s international reputation How are Americans viewed today? (Internationally, foreign policy) How does this war shape the culture of the modern Southwest? (inter-cultural relations, trust of the government)
Daily newspapers, printed on rotary presses, gave the war a romantic appeal.
The Return of Santa Anna • 1844, ousted as pres. • Exiled in Cuba • Polk scheme cooperation • Went back on his word, resumed Mex Presidency • Commanded an attack on Taylor at Buena Vista
Antonio Lopez De Santa Anna Circa 1845 Circa 1858
Zachary Taylor • General, highly successful in war • Later political success
Zachary Taylor’s Early Success • Victory, Victory, Victory • Mexicans fought hard, but were poorly led and funded • Winfield Scott picked up where Taylor left off • More victories
Polk Brings in Winfield Scott Polk threatened by Taylor’s success & ambition Winfield Scott • Mexico City • Gets the Glory • Also later political success
Birds-Eye View of the Camp of the “Army of Occupation” Commanded by General Taylor
Taylor v. Scott “Old Fuss and Feathers” General Winfield Scott, a stickler for propriety and order, was widely known as "Old Fuss and Feathers." “Old Rough and Ready” General Zachary Taylor, greatly admired for his informality and calm courage, succeeded Polk to the presidency
War Divides Americans • Democrats • Southern • Wanted new slave territories, increased power in congress • i.e. • Whigs • Northern • Anti-slave, many anti-Mexican War • i.e. Henry Clay, Daniel Webster, David Crockett, Abraham Lincoln
When he questioned the war with Mexico and asked if any battle had truly been fought on American soil, this first-term Congressman was branded the “Benedict Arnold” of his district, and denied reelection. Who is he? A young Abraham Lincoln
This former President argued, like many others, that the Mexican War would result in the spread of slavery. Who is he? Congressman John Quincy Adams
Recently defeated for the 5th time in his campaign for the presidency, this famous Whig called the War with Mexico unnatural, unsettled and uncertain, “menacing the harmony, if not the existence of our Union.” Who is he? The Great Compromiser, Henry Clay
His objections to the war were turned into a classic essay on the moral responsibilities of citizens. He refused to pay pole tax to fund a war he did not agree with and called it Civil Disobedience.Who is he? Transcendentalist Writer, Henry David Thoreau
War Divides Americans Massachusetts legislator Charles Sumner “The lives of Mexicans are sacrificed in this cause; and a domestic question, which should be reserved for bloodless debate in our own country, is transferred to fields of battle in a foreign land.”
Treaty of Guadalupe - Hidalgo • Peace treaty, ended the war • Mexican Cession • 55% of Mexico’s pre-war territory went to the US • US paid $15 million • equivalent to $313 million in 2006 USD • Ensured safety and pre-existing property rights for Mexican Citizens in transferred territories • US, in many cases, failed to honor this
Mexican Cession • The land Mexico ceded (gave up) to the US • Covered what are now CA, NV, UT, and parts of four other states. What’s still missing here?
Remainder of AZ & NM Purchased by James Gadsden sent by President Franklin Pierce Gadsden Purchase
The end of the war General Scott’s entrance to MexicoWhat’s going on here?
General Stephen Watts Kearney Between the western frontier of the US and the coveted province of Upper CA lay the vast tract known as “Nuevo Mexico.” Taken virtually without bloodshed by Brigadier General Stephen Kearney and the Army of the West.
On their way to California in the fall of 1846, General Kearney's men pass San Felipe Pueblo, New Mexico.
The Bear Flag Republic Bear Flag revolt on June 14, 1846 ended Mexican rule over California. Thirty-three American adventurers from the Sacramento Valley seized General Vallejo and took over Sonoma. Polk tried to Purchase CA from Mexico Mexico refused, but when Kearney and Fremont arrived from NM, Mexican Troops gave way
Mexico’s Fighting Irish Deserters of the US troops for abuses and prejudice Juan, or Jose O’Reilly Saint Patrick’s Battalion“San Patricio” Unsatisfied about fighting a Catholic country Fed up with the bigotry and mistreatment by their Anglo-Protestant officers Hundreds of Irish immigrant soldiers stood for what they believed in and aided the oppressed Mexico troops.
Captain Robert E. Lee Robert E. Lee Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson William T. Sherman Ulysses S. Grant Mexico, a “Proving Ground”
Mexico, a “Proving Ground” Lieutenant Ulysses S. Grant heading off to fight in the Mexican War
Ornamental Map of the United States and Mexico, 1848- Panoramic View from New York to the Pacific Coast by the Contemplated Oregon Railroad