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Kingdoms Booklet

Kingdoms Booklet

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Kingdoms Booklet

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  1. Kingdoms Booklet Viruses through Plants

  2. Kingdoms of Living Organisms Your Name

  3. Table of Contents

  4. The Living Dead VIRUSES

  5. Viruses • Viruses are tiny pathogens that can invade an organism and cause diseases. They are much smaller than a living cell. Viruses are not considered to be living because they do not carry out several life functions. For example, they cannot • Grow and develop • Reproduce on their own • Take in nutrition and pass waste • Respond to their environments • Viruses reproduce by injecting their DNA/RNA into a host cell. The viral RNA/DNA then reprograms the host cell’s nucleus so that the host cell uses its own materials to make thousands more of the virus. Once most of the host cell’s material has been used up, the cell membrane bursts and the thousands of new environs (viruses) flood into the blood stream. Environ attaches to host cell Host cell Virus injects its DNA/RNA into the host cell Viral DNA/RNA reprograms the host cell’s DNA to make more of the virus. Once most of the host cell’s material is mostly used up, 1000s of new environs burst from the dead host cell. • Diseases caused by viruses • Colds • Flu • HIV • Hepatitis A type of bacteria killing virus. 2

  6. Prokaryotes Unicellular organisms that do not have their genetic material/DNA enclosed in a nucleus.

  7. Kingdom Archaea Like bacteria, archaea are microscopic organisms that lack a nucleus. Unicellular organisms that lack a nucleus are called prokaryotes. When first discovered, archeans were thought to be a type of bacteria. As more was learned about them they were eventually assigned to their own kingdom. Archaeainhabit some of the harshest environments on earth. They have been found living miles below the ocean’s surface near hydrothermal vents, in geothermal pools on the surface, in super salty water, and even in natural pools of acid. Draw and label a type of environment inhabited by archea.

  8. Kingdom Monera (Bacteria & Cyanobacteria) The Kingdom Monera, consists entirely of eu(bacteria) and cyanobacteria (blue-green bacteria.) Bacteria are prokaryotic (no nucleus). Most bacteria are heterotrophic (cannot produce their own food). Many types of bacteria are important decomposers. They break down organic material so that it can be recycled by the food web. Nitrogen fixing bacteria help change nitrogen gas in our atmosphere into a form of nitrogen plants can use. Most bacteria are harmless to humans. Some are very helpful, like the types of bacteria used to make yogurt or clean up oil spills. Some bacteria can be harmful to humans. They can cause infections or diseases like strep throat, food poisoning, and TB. 4 • Main Bacteria Shapes • Spherical (cocci) • Spiral • Rod Shaped (bacilli) • These can be single or form clusters or chains. • Cyanobacteria • Cyano is a bluish-green color. Cyanobacteria contain chlorophyll, so they are able to make their own food through photosynthesis. • Antibiotics • Antibiotics are medicines specifically designed to fight bacterial infections. Medicines like penicillin and amoxicillin are common antibiotics. Antibiotics will NOT work on viruses. • 5

  9. Eukaryotes All organisms whose DNA is contained within a nucleus.

  10. Kingdom Protista • Protists are the least complex eukaryoticorganisms. Most are unicellular. They are larger and more complex than bacteria. • They are divided into three categories based on similarities to other, more complex kingdoms: • Protozoa-animal-like protists • b. Algae - plant-like protists • Some algae are unicellular like dinoflagellatesand diatoms. • Some form chains or colonies. • Some are multi-cellular, like seaweed. • 6 • 4 • c. Slime and Water molds- fungi like protists. Important decomposers. • Importance of Algae • While all protists have an important role on earth, the role of algae is perhaps the most important. Algae • Is the base of the food web for nearly all aquatic environments • Keeps carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere lower by absorbing CO2 which algae need for photosynthesis. • Releases vast amounts of oxygen into the atmosphere. • 7

  11. Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Fungi consists mainly of mushrooms, molds & mildews, and yeasts. Fungi are eukaryotic (they have a nucleus), heterotrophic (they must find food in their environment). Most fungi are multi-cellular, but some are simple unicellular organisms. They have cell walls made of chitin. Some fungi are helpful and even edible, like certain mushrooms (Most mushrooms are poisonous to humans)or the unicellular yeast that is used to make bread. Yeast breaks down sugar and “burps” carbon dioxide which causes the dough to rise. In liquids, yeast breaks down sugar and releases carbon dioxide and alcohol. This process is known as fermentation. Some fungi are parasitic, meaning they feed off a living host. Diseases like ring worm and athlete’s foot are caused by parasitic fungi. 8 Fungi Reproduction Fungi do not reproduce from seeds like plants. Fungi produce microscopic reproductive cells called spores. The part of the mushroom we see above ground is the part responsible for producing and releasing spores. Below the surface, the fungi consists of long, thread or root like structures known as hyphae. The bundled mass of hyphae (known as the mycelium) releases digestive enzymes that decompose organic matter. Fruiting body Spores produced on the underside of the cap. Long strands of hyphae under the surface form a “hair ball” called the mycelium. 9

  12. Kingdom Plantae Plants are eukaryotic and autotrophic. Plant cells have cell walls made of cellulose and organelles called chloroplasts that contain the chlorophyll necessary for photosynthesis. Plants affect our atmosphere by removing carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and by releasing oxygen and water vapor back into the atmosphere. This process is called transpiration. They also provide many species of animals with food. Plants give us building materials,medicine, and materials for clothing as well. 10 Plants Role in a Food Web On land and in some aquatic environments, plants are the main food source at the bottom of the food chain or food web. Plants and algae are known in ecology as producers. Producers are the food makers of the world. They use sunlight, carbon dioxide, water, and chlorophyll to make food through photosynthesis. Even animals that don’t eat plants directly (carnivores)still need plants because carnivores eat herbivores (plant eaters.) Hawk eats Snake eats Squirrel eats Acorn (plant) 11

  13. Stages of seed development and growth. Pollination-pollen is transferred from another flower to this one by insects or birds. Fertilization-the pollen forms a long tube that allows the sperm to reach the ovule. Germination-the seed sprouts and grows into a new plant. Go to

  14. Animal Kingdom Invertebrates Porifera- the simplest animal is the sponge. The sponge is a filter-feeding animal that lives attached to hard surfaces in the ocean. Sponges are sometimes described as a “tube within a tube.” Sponges can produce sexually through the production of male and female sex cells or asexually through fragmentation or through budding. That’s right, boys and girls. I’m a real animal!

  15. Cnidaria-Mostly marine species. Characterized by having stinging cells on the tips of tentacles. Have two major body forms: Algae are extremely important to our environment because they are one of the most important primary food sources in aquatic environments, and they produce vast amounts of oxygen for our atmosphere through photosynthesis. They also form the base of the food webfor aquatic environments. This is similar to the role of plants in terrestrial environments. Algae and plants are called producers because they can “produce” food through photosynthesis. The prefix “phyto” means “plant-like.” The term “plankton” refers to tiny floating aquatic organisms (mostly marine or salt water.) Phytoplankton is the term used to refer to unicellular algae. The polyp form which remains attached to hard surfaces. This is the mature stage for corals and sea anemones. The free-floating medusa form. This is the mature stage for jellyfish.