What’s the Matter? • The Matter is everything!! • States of Matter; Solids, Liquids, Gases • Classifying Matter According to Composition • Physical and Chemical Properties & Changes
What is Matter? • Matter is any substance that has both mass and volume. • Almost everything around us is matter including air and other gases.
Atoms/Molecules in States of Matter Solid Liquid Gas
Properties Properties are the characteristics used to identify a substance. “ If it looks like a duck and sounds like a duck it must be a duck.” Examples include, color, taste, smell, dimensions, density, etc.
Types of Properties • Chemical vs Physical Properties • Quantitative vs Qualitative Properties • These these properties are not mutually exclusive. i.e. they can overlap. For instance a chemical property can also be a qualitative property.
Chemical & Physical Properties • The characteristic is considered a chemical property if there it can be observed only in the act of creating a new substance. • Example- Iron rusts. This is a chemical property because the observation of iron rusting causes the metal to change and become rusted and thus a new substance • The characteristic is considered a physical property if it there is no change to a new substance and most of the properties remain constant. • Example- Freezing point of water. Measuring the temperature of the water doesn’t change it.
Qualitative vs Quantitative Properties • Qualitative properties are descriptive properties. • Example- The car is red. • Quantitative properties are based on a number or measurement. • Example – It is 5°C outside.
Practice with properties • Identify the types of property for the following: • Food rots • An acid corrodes calcium. • The weight of a gallon of oil is 7.5 pounds.
Practice with properties • Identify the types of property for the following: • Food rots • This is a chemical property as a new substance if formed. It is an intensive property as food rots if you have a little or a lot. It is a qualitative property; there are no numbers involved.
Practice with properties • Identify the types of property for the following: • An acid corrodescalcium. • This is a chemical property as the acid and metal are destroyed in observing this property. It is a qualitative property as there is no number involved.
Practice with properties • Identify the types of property for the following: • The weight of a gallon of oil is 7.5 pounds. • This is a physical property as the oil is not changed in making the observation. It is a quantitative property since a measurement is involved.
Chemical vs Physical Change A chemical change results in new substance with different properties. A physical change may change the appearance of a substance but most of the properties will remain the same. Examples ChemicalPhysical Burning wood Sawing wood Decomposing water Freezing water Nail rustingCleaning rust with steel wool
Chemical Change Clues Bubbles of gas are formed. A color change occurs. 3. A precipitate (solid) is formed. 4. Heat or light is given off. 5. The change is difficult to reverse.