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Networking Fundamentals

Networking Fundamentals

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Networking Fundamentals

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  1. Networking Fundamentals Copper Core Cable as Network Media

  2. Medium: Copper Signals

  3. Analog and Digital Signals • Frequency - repeating event per unit time • Hz or Hertz – cycles per second • Attenuation - A gradual loss of any kind through a medium • Interference - the combination of two or more electromagnetic waveforms to form a resultant wave • Latency - a measure of time delay experienced in a system

  4. Medium Copper Data Transmission

  5. Data Transmission • Bandwidth – (1) width of the range (or band) of frequencies that an electronic signal uses on a given transmission medium (usually in hertz, hz) (2) data transfer rate (usually in bits per second, bps) • Baseband - a single unmultiplexedsignal • Broadband - multiple signals and traffic types

  6. Data Transmission • Simplex – one way • Duplex – two way • Full-Duplex – all the time • Half Duplex – one at a time

  7. Signal Encoding, Digitization • Frequency Shift Keying - FSK • Amplitude Shift Keying - ASK • Phase Shift Keying - PSK • QPSK • QAM64

  8. Medium Copper Important Electronic Terms

  9. Electronic Terms • Direct Current the unidirectional flow of electric charge. Direct current is produced by sources such as batteries. • Alternating Current the flow of electric charge periodically reverses direction.

  10. Electronic Terms • Resistance (DC) the opposition to the passage of an electric current through that conductor. • Impedance (AC) the opposition that a circuit presents to a current when a voltage is applied.

  11. Electronic Terms • Reflected Loss the loss of signal power resulting from the reflection caused at a discontinuity. • Crosstalk phenomenon by which a signal transmitted on one circuit or channel of a transmission system creates an undesired effect in another circuit or channel.

  12. Electronic Terms • Induction a redistribution of electrical charge in an object, caused by the influence of nearby charges. • Decibel A unit used to express relative difference in power or intensity, usually between two acoustic or electric signals, equal to ten times the common logarithm of the ratio of the two levels

  13. Crosstalk • Near-End • Far-End • Equal Level Far-End • Alien Crosstalk

  14. Medium Copper Copper Core Cables

  15. Copper Core Cables • Coaxial Cable • Twisted Pair

  16. Medium Copper IEEE 802.3 - Ethernet

  17. IEEE 802 • 802 Network Standard .1 Internetworking .2 Logical Link Control .3 Ethernet over copper cabling .11 Wireless http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEEE_802

  18. IEEE 802.3 Standard (1000+pages) • Classifications10BaseT 10 Mbps Baseband Twisted Pair (Cat5) 100BaseTX 100 Mbps Baseband Twisted Pair (Cat5) 1000BaseT 1000 Mbps Baseband Twisted Pair (Cat5e) 10GBaseT 10 Gbps Baseband Twisted Pair (Cat6) • Media Access CSMA/CD carrier sense multiple access with collision detection • Wiring and Connections568A 568B RJ-45 Connector Straight-Through (Patch) Crossover Auto-MDIX – Automatic Medium-Dependent Interface Crossover

  19. Medium Copper IEEE 802.5

  20. IEEE 802.5 Standard • 802.5 Token Ring • MAU – Multiple Access Unit

  21. Medium Copper Wiring Faults

  22. Wiring Faults • Short – Bad connection • Open – Break in connection • Ground – Connects to Earth • Reversed – Reversed Pair • Crossed – Crossed pair • Split Pairs – Split Pair

  23. Medium Copper Etc.

  24. Etc • Etc